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巢湖有机物污染和湖泊底泥有机污染植物修复作用研究
Alternative TitleStudies on the organic pollution in Chaohu Lake and phytoremediation of organic polluted sediment
杨立华
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor成水平
2009-06-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword湖泊 巢湖 底泥 有机物污染 植物修复 旱柳 香蒲
Abstract随着我国工农业的快速发展,未经处理或处理不当的工业废水、废气等的大量排放,农药的大量使用,各种车辆排放的尾气,固体废弃物的焚烧等产生了大量的有机污染物,这些污染物质通过大气干湿沉降和地表径流等途径进入水体中,并在底泥中不断蓄积,给水生态环境和人类健康造成了潜在的危害。在治理水体有机物污染的各种途径中,植物修复以其低成本、原位修复、美化景观等优点被认为是一种有力的措施。本论文针对湖泊水体和底泥的有机物污染,开展了长江中下游典型湖泊巢湖的有机物污染现状的调查研究,进行了武汉月湖清淤底泥的植物修复野外试验研究,比较分析了旱柳和香蒲对底泥几类有机物污染的修复作用,为湖泊底泥有机物污染植物修复实践提供理论依据。主要研究结果如下: 1)通过对巢湖水体和表层底泥的定性分析,共发现120种有机污染物,主要为多环芳烃和酯类物质,其中13种属于美国EPA列出的优先控制污染物,表明巢湖已受到有机物污染。底泥中有机污染物种类要远高于水体中,说明底泥是有机污染的“汇”。通过比较各采样点有机污染物数量和分析典型有机污染物的来源,表明巢湖污染主要来自西北角入湖河流中带入的制药、食品加工、塑料制品、化工等产生的有机污染物。 2)通过对巢湖水体和表层底泥的24种半挥发性有机物的定量分析,结果显示酞酸酯(PAEs)浓度较高,其中比较突出的是邻苯二甲酸二正丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸双〈2-乙基己基〉酯(DEHP)这两种最常用到的增塑剂,表明塑料的广泛使用已经对环境造成了污染;多环芳烃(PAHs)也是一个重要的污染物种类,对其来源进行分子指数比对,表明主要是来源于液态化石原料的燃烧,这可能是由于巢湖上存在大量的以化石原料为动力的捕鱼船和运输船废气排放和大气沉降作用。 3)研究分析了月湖疏竣底泥有机物污染的植物修复效果,结果显示PAHs在植物根际呈现积聚趋势,而且旱柳对PAHs的积聚作用比香蒲明显,可能因为旱柳的蒸腾作用更强。PAHs具有高亲脂性(log Kow>3),植物一般难以吸收高亲脂性有机污染物,推测植物对其修复作用主要是通过根系分泌物促进PAHs在土壤中的溶解,并且通过蒸腾拉力吸附到植物根际,然后利用植物根际存在的大量微生物对其进行降解。 4)旱柳对月湖底泥中两种二硝基甲苯类化合物2,4-DNT和2,6-DNT具有较好的去除作用,而且对2,4-DNT去除效果明显;而香蒲只在旱地对2,4-DNT表现出去除效果。分析认为植物对这两种物质的去除作用主要是通过植物吸收来实现,这两种有机物的log Kow值在0.5~3之间,植物比较容易对其进行吸收和体内转运。 5)旱柳对底泥中支链最短的两种酞酸酯类化合物邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)和邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)的去除作用与二硝基甲苯类化合物类似;不同的是香蒲对这两种物质也表现出了较好的去除作用。香蒲对异佛尔酮表现出了很好的去除作用,可以作为对异佛尔酮污染底泥植物修复的一种很有潜力的植物类型。 以上研究表明,巢湖已经受到有机物污染,其中以PAEs和PAHs最为严重,且有机物有在底泥聚积的趋势,对人类健康存在潜在的威胁。野外试验研究表明植物对底泥中的PAHs主要是通过积聚后进行降解,而对二硝基甲苯类物质主要是通过吸收进行去除;香蒲是一种可以作为对异佛尔酮污染底泥(土壤)进行修复的植物类型。
Other AbstractWith the rapid development of China's industry and agriculture, the untreated or improper handled industrial waste water discharge, large-scale use of pesticides, all kinds of vehicle exhaust emissions, the burning of solid waste, large number of organic pollutants entered the water bodies through the atmosphere dry and wet deposition and surface runoff, and accumulated in the sediment, posing potential threat to water environment and human health. Among various ways of organic pollution treatment of water bodies, phytoremediation, with its low-cost, in situ, landscaping, etc. has been an accepted measure for cleaning polluted soil and water. In view of this, the organic pollution of water and surface sediment in Chaohu lake, which is a typical lake along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, were investigated, field experiment on phytoremediation of organic pollutants in the dredged sediment of Yuehu Lake, which is a small urban eutrophic lake in Wuhan, was set and phytoremediation of organic pollution by willow (Salix matsudana) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) were studied. The main results are as follows: 1) Through qualitative analysis of water and surface sediment of Chaohu Lake, it was revealed that in Chaohu Lake was polluted by organic chemicals. A total of 120 kinds of organic chemicals, mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalates, of which 13 species are listed in the U.S. EPA priority control chemicals has been detected. It also showed that the types of organic chemicals in sediment were much higher than those in water, and indicated that the sediment was the “sinks” of organic chemicals. By comparing the numbers of each sampling sites and analysis of the source of typical organic chemicals, it indicated that pollutants in Chaohu Lake mainly came from the northwest corner, where was the estuary of rivers heavily polluted by the pharmaceuticals, food production, plastic products, chemical industry and so on. 2) In view of the qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis of 24 kinds semi-volatile organic chemicals was carried out. The results showed that chemicals in highest concentrations were phthalates (PAEs), of which the prominent were DBP and DEHP, two most commonly used plasticizer. The extensive use of plastics has caused pollution to the environment. PAHs was also an important type of pollutants. By analysis of the molecular indices, it showed that they mainly origined from the combustion of liquid fossil, which may be due to the large number of the fishing boats and transport vessels exhaust emission and the atmospheric deposition whereafter. 3) Phytoremediation of sediment in the field experiment showed that PAHs trended to be accumulated in the rhizosphere, and the accumulation efficiency of willow was better than that of cattail, perhaps due to stronger transpiration of willow. The high lipophylic (logKow>3) of PAHs made it difficult for plant to uptake, and it was deduced that the phytoremediation mechanisms of PAHs was mainly rhizodegradation after accumulation. 4) Willow showed efficiency on phytoremediation of two dinitrotoluene chemicals pollution, 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT, while cattail only acted on 2, 4-DNT in the dry area. The phytoremediation mechanisms of PAHs was mainly phytoextraction due to their lower lipophylic (log Kow:0.5-3), which was in the range for plant uptake. 5) The phytoremediation efficiencies of the two PAEs with the shortest branched-chain (DMP and DEP) by willow were similar to those of DNTs. And cattail also showed significant efficiency on these two chemicals. Meanwhile, cattail showed a good efficiency on isophorone pollution phytoremediation, making it a potential plant types to remediate isophorone contaminated soil. In conclusion, Chaohu Lake has been polluted by organic chemicals, of which the most serious were PAEs and PAHs, and they trended to accumulate in the sediment, posing a potential threat to human health. Through a field trail of phytoremediation of dredged sediments from the Yuehu Lake, the mechanisms of phytoremediation of PAHs pollution was mainly through rhizodegradation after accumunation, and that of DNTs was mainly through phytoextraction. It was also indicated that Salix matsudana and Typha angustifolia were two potential phytoremediation plants to remediate soil polluted by 2,4-Dinitrotoluene and isophorone, respectively.
Pages78
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12484
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨立华. 巢湖有机物污染和湖泊底泥有机污染植物修复作用研究[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.
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