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题名: 浮游性鱼腥藻的分类和分子系统研究
作者: 杨丽
答辩日期: 2009-04-29
导师: 李仁辉
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 鱼腥藻 ; 浮游性鱼腥藻 ; 新记录种 ; 分子系统 ; 土腥素
其他题名: Taxonomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Studies of Planktonic Anabaena (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria)
摘要: 目前,全世界报道的鱼腥藻种类约有100余种,浮游性鱼腥藻种类约有40多种,但是国内对浮游性鱼腥藻的了解和研究相对较少,中国有记录的浮游性鱼腥藻种类只有几种。在浮游性鱼腥藻的分子系统方面国内也鲜有报道,其与固着性鱼腥藻及其与念珠藻科相邻属如束丝藻、项圈藻、毛丝藻、念珠藻、节球藻等之间的系统关系也仍然不太清楚。 本研究通过对浮游性鱼腥藻进行广泛采样和分离纯化培养,获取了175株纯培养的浮游性鱼腥藻藻株。采用传统的分类方法对这些藻株进行藻丝形状,营养细胞,异形胞和孢子的形态,异形胞与孢子的大小以及相对位置的观察和测量,最终确定分离到的浮游性鱼腥藻可以分为11种。其中有8种是中国的新记录种,分别为近亲鱼腥藻Anabaena affinis Lemmermann 1897,浮游鱼腥藻Anabaena planctonica Brunnthaler 1903,凯氏鱼腥藻 Anabaena kisseleviana Elenkin 1938,束丝鱼腥藻Anabaena aphanizomenioides Forti 1912,伯氏鱼腥藻Anabaena bergii Ostenfeld 1908,乌克兰鱼腥藻Anabaena ucrainica (Schkorb.) Watanabe 1996,大湖鱼腥藻Anabaena oumiana Watanabe 1996,真紧密鱼腥藻Anabaena eucompacta Li et Watanabe 1999。另外3种螺旋鱼腥藻Anabaena spiroides Kleb. 1895,卷曲鱼腥藻Anabaena circinalis Rab. 1852,水华鱼腥藻Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngb.)Breb., 1836则是中国的常见种。 运用多种软件对浮游性鱼腥藻的16S rDNA、PC-IGS和rbcLX三个基因进行分析并构建NJ、ML系统树,结果显示:浮游性鱼腥藻与束丝藻、拟柱胞藻的亲缘关系较近,与节球藻、项圈藻、蓝螺旋藻、毛丝藻、念珠藻的亲缘关系较远,与同属的固着性鱼腥藻无法完全分开。本研究中的浮游性鱼腥藻种类繁多,但是大部分在藻种种类、地域上不存在差异性。16S rDNA、PC-IGS和rbcLX三个基因比较而言,rbcLX基因的进化速率相对较快,用它来分析浮游性鱼腥藻及其与念珠藻科其他属的蓝藻之间的分子系统关系具有更高的适应性。 在培养过程中发现,乌克兰鱼腥藻可产生异味物质,主要成分为土腥素(Geosmin),其在对数生长期的土腥素产量很高(1.09×10-5—2.60×10-5ng•cell-1)。不同藻株间土腥素产量相差较大,这可能与藻株的遗传特性和环境因子有关。将乌克兰鱼腥藻土腥素合成酶基因的部分序列与已报道的Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102和Phormidium sp. 土腥素合成酶基因进行比较,发现蓝藻土腥素合成酶基因进化速率较快。
英文摘要: To date, more than 100 taxa of genus Anabaena including about 40 planktonic have been reported in the world. However, there are few researches of planktonic Anabaena in China, and only several species were described in China so far. Information about molecular phylogenetic studies based on Chinese planktonic Anabaena strains is quite limited. The phylogenetic relationships of planktonic Anabaena with benthic Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Anabaenopsis, Trichormus, Nostoc and Nodularia are not clear. In this study, 175 strains of planctonic Anabaena have been obtained by our wide range of sample collection. Through morphological observation such as the shape of trichomes, the characters and dimensions of vegetative cells, heterocysts and akinetes, the position of heterocysts and akinetes, these planktonic Anabaena strains can be identified into eleven species. Among them, eight species are new record to China, and they are Anabaena affinis Lemmermann 1897, Anabaena planctonica Brunnthaler 1903, Anabaena kisseleviana Elenkin 1938, Anabaena aphanizomenioides Forti 1912, Anabaena bergii Ostenfeld 1908, Anabaena ucrainica (Schkorb.) Watanabe 1996, Anabaena oumiana Watanabe 1996 and Anabaena eucompacta Li et Watanabe 1999. The other three species are common in Chian, they are Anabaena spiroides Kleb. 1895, Anabaena circinalis Rab. 1852 and Anabaena flos-aquae (Lyngb.)Breb., 1836. Three gene 16S rDNA、PC-IGS and rbcLX have been analyzed, and phylogenetic trees based on sequences of these three genes were constructed using NJ and ML methods. Results showed that the phylogenetic relationships of planktonic Anabaena with Trichormus, Nostoc Anabaenopsis, Nodularia and Cyanospira are further than those of planctonic Anabaena with benthic Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and Cylindrospermopsis. Many planktonic Anabaena species in this study were not shown to have genetic differences or differentiate geographically. Among the three genes, the evolutionary speed of rbcLX gene is relatively faster, and it is thus more adaptive to use rbcLX gene sequence for analyzing the molecular phylogenetic relationship between planktonic Anabaena with other genera of Nostocaceae. Strains of Anabaena ucrainica were shown to produce taste & odor substance --geosmin, with high amounts (between 1.09×10-5 to 2.60×10-5ng•cell-1), based on laboratory culture of these strains at the log phase. The ability in producing geosmin of these different Anabaena ucrainica strains are extremely different, and main reasons may be the combined genetic and environmental factors. Comparing the partial sequence of geosmin synthase gene examined in strains of Anabaena ucrainica with that of Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Phormidium sp., it is suggested that the geosmin synthase gene of cyanobateria was faster in evolutionary speed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12478
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
浮游性鱼腥藻的分类和分子系统研究.杨丽[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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