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题名: 胃瘤线虫的生活史、危害及宿主特异性
作者: 熊凡
答辩日期: 2009-06-02
导师: 王桂堂
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 胃瘤线虫 ; 生活史 ; 危害 ; 宿主特异性
其他题名: Life-cycle, pathology and host specificity of Eustrongylides
摘要: 胃瘤线虫隶属于嘴刺目膨结科,是一种重要的鱼—鸟共患寄生虫,广泛分布于我国各地。本论文运用形态学和分子生物学技术,研究了胃瘤线虫的生活史及其对终末宿主的危害,并初步弄清了其幼虫的宿主特异性。 本论文以家鸭为实验感染对象,从黄鳝体内解剖出胃瘤线虫幼虫,感染家鸭,研究了黄鳝体内胃瘤线虫在终末宿主中的发育过程并鉴定了其种类。首次发现寄生于黄鳝体内的胃瘤线虫为Eustrongylides ignotus。在家鸭体内,雌雄虫发育速度不同,雄虫感染后1-2 天发生第四次蜕皮,4 天后发育成熟,7-9 天死亡;雌虫感染后2-4 天发生第四次蜕皮,9-17天产卵,然后死亡。相对于第四期幼虫,雌虫成虫体积发生了151%的增长,雄虫成虫体积增长不明显。 利用黄鳝体内的胃瘤线虫感染不同年龄的家鸭,统计感染率和致死率,了解病理变化。发现胃瘤线虫的感染可导致家鸭腺胃发生严重的机械损伤,导致剧烈的炎症反应。 收集不同地区、不同鱼类宿主体内的胃瘤线虫,以ITS rDNA和COI基因为分子标记,构建系统发育树,研究我国鱼类中胃瘤线虫的宿主特异性。发现不同地区、不同宿主的胃瘤线虫感染率有很大差别;我国的胃瘤线虫幼虫可分为三支,各支之间的遗传距离远远超过公认的线虫种间遗传距离;乌鳢和河鲶体内可寄生两种胃瘤线虫。
英文摘要: Eustrongylides species have been reported from various regions of China. In the present study, the morphology and molecular ecology of the Eustrongylides species have been investigated in order to clarify their life-cycle, pathology and host specificity. In the present study, fourth-stage larvae isolated from naturally infected swamp eel (Monopterus albus) were used to infect domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica (L.)). The male and female worms were observed underwent different developmental patterns in host ducks. In males, the fourth moult occurred on day 1–2 post-infection (p.i.), after which they became maturity on day 4 p.i., and died on day 7– 9 p.i. However, females underwent the fourth moult on day 2–4 p.i., produced eggs from day 9 to 17 p.i., and then degenerated and died. When compared to fourth-stage female larvae, adult females demonstrated a 151% considerable increase in total body size. However, the increase in size of the male was not as significant as that in females. In order to clarify influence of Eustrongylides infection in their definitive hosts, prevalence, mortality and pathology in ducks of different ages, which were experimentally infected by E. ignotus from swamp eel, were investigated. It was found that E. ignotus caused mechanical deterioration and inflammatory reaction of ducks’ proventriculus. The infection could lead death of nestling ducks and the mortality decreased along with the increase of the age of ducks. Eustrongylides larvae were collected from different fish species in different locations in China and phylogenetic relationship was studied to determine the host specificity of this parasites, by using ITS and COI as the molecular markers. The results showed that the prevelance differed significantly in different host species and habitats. Phylogenetic trees indicated that Eustrongylides was monophyletic when comparing with the outgroups. The specimens of Eustongylides under investigation could be divided into three well-supported clades. The genetic analysis also showed unequivocally that S. asotus and C. argus might harbour two genetic species of morphologically cryptic nematodes.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12472
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
胃瘤线虫的生活史、危害及宿主特异性.熊凡[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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