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浅水湖泊小型底栖动物的群落特征及生态地位探讨
Alternative TitleCOMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF MEIOFAUNA IN SHALLOW LAKES
闫福桂
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王洪铸
2009-05-29
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword小型底栖动物 群落特征 环境分析 生态地位 浅水湖泊
Abstract国内关于湖泊小型底栖动物的研究甚少。为了解长江流域浅水湖泊小型底栖动物的基本情况,我们于2007年-2008年间对典型的藻型浅水湖泊东汤孙湖和草型浅水湖泊东西凉湖小型底栖动物作了周年季度调查。本文系统地研究了浅水湖泊小型底栖动物的群落特征及其与环境因子的关系,并分析小型底栖动物在生态系统中的作用。主要结果如下: 1. 对所鉴定的小型底栖动物进行简要的形态学描述。描述小型底栖动物9科12属12种。其中线虫6种,枝角类2种,介形类2种,桡足类2种。 2. 系统分析了浅水湖泊小型底栖动物的群落特征。共采集到小型底栖动物5纲17科30属34种,东汤孙湖和东西凉湖均为25种。草型湖泊物种多样性高于藻型湖泊。东汤孙湖和东西凉湖小型底栖动物密度分别为139.5×103ind/m2和58.5×103ind/m2,生物量分别为2.8g/m2和0.78g/m2,生产量分别为25.1g/(m2.a)和7.0g/(m2.a)。小型底栖动物现存量在季节间的差异不显著。线虫是最优势的类群,其种类数、密度和生物量均占有较大比例。从垂直分布上看,超过65%的个体生活在沉积物0-5cm层。 3. 分析了线虫的种类组成和功能摄食类群。矛线科(Dorylaimidae)和三叶科(Tobrilidae)线虫种类在东汤孙湖中占绝对优势,而东西凉湖中角咽科(Actinolaimidae)、锉齿科(Mylonchulidae)、矛线科(Dorylaimidae)、烙线科(Ironidae)和三叶科(Tobrilidae)种类均占较大比例。碎屑、其他线虫和藻类是两湖线虫的重要食物;并且碎屑在藻型湖泊中占有较高比例,细菌在草型湖泊中占较大比例。 4. 分析了影响群落特征的重要环境因子。东汤孙湖小型底栖动物密度与透明度显著正相关(r=0.57,p=0.03)、与湖水总磷浓度显著负相关(r=-0.55,p=0.01),说明营养水平是影响小型底栖动物的主要因素。东西凉湖小型底栖动物密度与6个环境因子的相关均未达到显著水平,说明营养水平并非是影响该湖小型底栖动物的主要因素。 5. 分析了小型底栖动物在生态系统中的作用。小型底栖动物在食物链中兼具分解者和消费者双重身份,对分解有机碎屑,促进生态系统中物质循环和能量流动起重要作用。小型底栖动物生物量仅为大型底栖动物的2.3-4.9%,但生产量达到了大型底栖动物的8.7-37.5%,这说明小型底栖动物在底层食物网能量流动中起重要作用。
Other AbstractIn China, few researches have been carried out on meiofauna of lakes. To understand basic characteristics of meiofauna communities in the Yangtze shallow lakes, an algae lake (Eastern Tangsunhu Lake) and a macrophytic lake (Eastern Xilianghu Lake) were investigated seasonally during 2007-2008. Community characteristics of meiofauna in the Yangtze shallow lakes have been comprehensively described, with a discussion on environmental parameters and density of meiofauna. Also, ecological role of meiofauna in these lakes was discussed. The results are mainly as follows: 1. A brief systematic account of meiofauna was presented. A systematic account of 12 species belonging 9 families and 12 genera were presented. Among which 5 species were from Nematoda, 2 species from Cladocera, 2 species from Ostracoda and 2 species from Copepoda. 2. Community characteristics of meiofauna in the shallow lakes were systematically described. A total of 34 species belonging to 5 orders, 17 families and 30 genera were identified. The species number was 25 in both Eastern Tangsunhu Lake and Eastern Xilianghu Lake. The biodiversity of meiofauna in the Eastern Xilianghu Lake were higher than that in the Eastern Tangsunhu Lake. The density, wet biomass and production of meiofauna in the Eastern Tangsunhu Lake were 139.5×103ind/m2, 2.8g/m2 and 25.1g/(m2.a), respectively. And the density, wet biomass and production of meiofauna in the Eastern Xilianghu Lake were 58.5×103ind/m2, 0.78g/m2 and 7.0g/(m2.a), respectively. No significant seasonal changes of meiofauna density were found in these two lakes. Nematodes were the most predominant group, comprising 44-52% in species number, 53.4-72.5% in density and 35.0-63.8% in wet biomass. The analysis of vertical distribution showed that 68.4-69.5% of the meiofauna were in the top 0-5cm of sediment. 3. Dominant families and functional feeding groups of the Nematoda were analyzed in these lakes. The dominant families of Nematoda were Dorylaimidae, Tobrilidae in the Eastern Tangsunhu Lake and Actinolaimidae, Mylonchulidae, Dorylaimidae, Ironidae, Tobrilidae in the Eastern Xilianghu Lake. Most Nematoda feed on organic matter, other nematodes and algae. Organic matter accounted for a higher proportion of food in the algal lake, and bacteria accounted for a higher proportion of food in the macrophytic lake. 4. Relationship between community characteristics and environmental factors were analyzed. Environmental analyses showed that the density of meiofauna correlated significantly with Secchi depth (r=0.57,p=0.03) and total phosphorus of lake water (r=-0.55,p=0.01) in the Eastern Tangsunhu Lake. This indicates that total phosphorus was the factor influenced community characteristics. However, there is no obvious relationship between density of meiofauna and environmental factors in the Eastern Xilianghu Lake. 5. Ecological role of meiofauna in these lakes was discussed. Meiofauna are not only decomposers but also consumers in food chain. The ratio of wet biomass between meiofauna and macrofauna was 2.3-4.9%, and that of production was 8.7-37.5%. Our result shows that meiofauna plays an important role in the material circulation and energy flow of benthic food webs in the Yangtze shallow lakes.
Pages79
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12464
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
闫福桂. 浅水湖泊小型底栖动物的群落特征及生态地位探讨[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.
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