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武汉及其周边湖泊底栖动物及水质生物指标筛选
Alternative TitleMacrozoobenthos of lakes in Wuhan City and its vicinities and selection of the biological index of water quality
王琴
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王洪铸
2009-05-29
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword群落特征 环境监测 Bi指数 水质评价 底栖动物 武汉及其周边湖泊
Abstract底栖动物作为一个重要的生态类群,在淡水生态系统中起着十分重要的作用,它是水质生物评价中应用最为广泛的类群之一。已有的生物评价标准主要依据溪流的研究结果获取的,而没有适合长江流域湖泊的水质评价标准。鉴于此,本研究于2007-2008年对武汉及其周边湖泊进行实地调查,揭示这些湖泊底栖动物的现状;另外,选取长江中下游24个湖泊,通过运用Shannon-Weaver多样性指数、Goodnight-Whitley生物指数、Margalef多样性指数和Biotic Index生物指数等四种生物学指数评价这些湖泊的水质状况,筛选出最适生物指标并建立评价标准,用以推广评价长江中下游湖泊水质状况。具体研究结果如下: 1、系统分析了武汉及其周边湖泊底栖动物的群落特征 保安湖、牛山湖、南北咀和大东湖分别有底栖动物37、15、24和50种。密度、生物量分别为549 ind/m2和49.2 g/m2,181 ind/m2和35.5 g/m2,194 ind/m2和21.6 g/m2,3673 ind/m2和14.2 g/m2。在保安湖的四个湖区中,保安口的底栖动物现存量最高,其中个体较大的摇蚊幼虫是优势类群。另外三个湖区中,密度上肖四海最低,而生物量方面扁担塘最低。由于牛山湖和南北咀的水生植物比较丰富,附草螺类如长角涵螺和纹沼螺在密度和生物量上都占据很大优势。东湖水网区中,严东湖的水体状况最好,有很多清洁种分布,青山港是长江和湖泊连通的通道,属流水性质,分布有较多流水性种类。 2、筛选水质评价指标并确定评价标准 根据2002-2008年间对长江中下游湖泊群的大型底栖动物的调查数据,用四种生物评价指数对其进行水质评价,结果表明BI 生物指数的评价结果与现实情况最为吻合,因此推荐使用BI生物指数作为评价长江中下游湖泊生态健康的生物指标。应用所有样点的BI值,通过频数分析,以5%分位数对应的值作为标准,小于该值表示水质最清洁,对大于该值至最大值的分布范围4等分,分别代表清洁、轻污染、中污染和重污染。制定BI指数长江中下游湖泊群水质评价标准为:< 5.48最清洁,5.48-6.46清洁,6.461-7.44轻污染,7.441-8.42中污染,> 8.42重污染。 3、用BI指数评价东湖水网区水体水质 计算东湖水网区各湖区的BI指数值,并据本研究所定标准将各湖区划分为清洁、轻污染、中污染和重污染。结果为:严东湖属于清洁水体;汤林湖、严西湖和青山港属轻污水体;庙湖、北湖和沙湖属重污水体;其余都属于中污染水体,这一结果与东湖水网区的实际情况比较吻合。
Other AbstractAs an important ecological group in freshwater ecosystems, macrozoobenthos play an important role in material cycling and energy flow, and are widely used in environmental monitoring. Previous evaluation criteria of biological indexes of water quality was based on the studies of streams, little has been established for mid-lower Yangtze lakes. Hence, systematical investigations of lakes in Wuhan City and its vicinities were carried out during 2007-2008. First, species composition, standing crops, functional feeding groups of macrozoobenthos in these lakes were studied. Secondly, we assessed water quality of 24 Yangtze lakes using four candidate metrics, and selected the optimum biological indicatoras a general indictor of the whole catchment. The main results are as follows: 1. Assemblage characteristics of macrozoobenthos in different lakes have been systematically analyzed. Altogether 37, 15, 24 and 50 taxa of macrozoobenthos were identified in Lake Baoanhu, Lake Niushanhu, Lake Nanbeizui and Lake Donghu District, respectively. The average densities and biomasses were 549 ind/m2, 49.2 g/m2; 181 ind/m2, 35.5 g/m2; 194 ind/m2, 21.6 g/m2; 3673 ind/m2, 14.2 g/m2. The standing crop of macrozoobenthos in Lake Baoankou was the highest on the four regions of Lake Baoanhu. The predominant group was aquatic insects which have large body size in Baoankou. In the other three regions, the density of macrozoobenthos in Lake Xiaosihai was the lowest and biomass of macrozoobenthos in Biandantang was the lowest. The epiphytic gastropods such as Alocinma longicornis and Parafossarulus striatulus were predominant in density and biomass in Lake Niushanhu and Lake Nanbeizui due to the rich aquatic plants. The water quality of Lake Yandonghu which have many taxa preferring clear water was the best in Lake Donghu District. There are many lotic taxa in the channel of Qingshangang due to its freely connection with the Yangtze River. 2. The suitable biological index for environmental monitoring has been selected and the evaluation criteria have been established. On the basis of macrozoobenthos data of 24 lakes of the mid-lower Yangtze lakes investigated during 2002-2008, we used four candidate metrics to evaluate the water quality. Results indicate that the Biotic Index is the most suitable. So, we recommend Biotic Index as an optimum index of biological evaluation of the mid-lower Yangtze lakes. Using a sample of sites from the entire population, the 5th percentile of the BI from the population of sites was determined. Any values below the 5th percentile were considered as “excellent”, and values above the 5th percentile was quadrisected for different water quality ratings. Criteria of BI for the mid-lower Yangtze lakes was also preliminary determined, < 5.48, excellent; 5.48-6.46, good; 6.461-7.44, good-fair; 7.441-8.42, fair; > 8.42, poor. 3. The biotic index has been used to evaluate the water quality of Lake Donghu District. Results show that the water quality of Lake Yandonghu is good; Lake Tanglinhu, Lake Yanxihu and Qingshangang are good-fair; Lake Miaohu, Lake Beihu and Lake Shahu are poor; the rest are fair.
Pages80
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12460
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王琴. 武汉及其周边湖泊底栖动物及水质生物指标筛选[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.
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