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三峡库区作为长江江豚迁地保护水域可行性的初步研究
Alternative TitleOn Feasibilities of the Three Gorges Reservoir as an Ex-situ Reserve of the Yangtze Finless Porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis
黄亚东
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王丁 ; 王克雄
2009-06-04
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword长江江豚 三峡库区 迁地保护 环境评估 可行性研究
Abstract白鱀豚和长江江豚是生活在长江中下游的两种珍稀水生哺乳动物。在过去几十年里,由于水污染、航运交通、非法渔业、挖沙和水利设施建设等人类活动的直接或间接影响,这两种动物的种群和栖息地遭到极大破坏。“2006长江淡水豚类考察”未能发现白鱀豚,长江干流的江豚数量也下降至只有大约1200头。长江生态环境的恶化和长江豚类的命运已成为国内外保护生物界关注的焦点之一。 长江江豚的迁地保护已经取得初步成功,但是也遭遇到一些困难。为了扩大迁地保护规模和建立更多的迁地保护种群,我们一直考虑把三峡库区作为长江江豚备选迁地保护水域,并已开展了环境可行性的初步研究。本研究的目的是确定三峡库区背景环境是否适合长江江豚在其中生活。本研究主要内容及结果如下: 1) 三峡库区整体水质较好,干流水质优于支流。水温、流速、透明度、pH值、水硬度都能满足长江江豚生存需要。有机污染物水平较低。大肠菌群数仅符合地表水环境质量标准(GB 3838—2002)Ⅲ类水质要求,但低于人工豚池最高含量。氮磷营养盐情况复杂且含量较高,但不会对长江江豚生活造成不利影响。除了Hg和Pb外,大部分重金属含量较低,总体上看,重金属含量与长江中下游江段差别不大。 2) 水面交通强度明显低于长江中下游江段,岸线曲折,水体较深,有利于江豚躲避船只。没有大型船只通过时,水下噪音不会影响豚类活动。尤其是支流库湾,基本没有大型船只活动,水下非常安静。但库区干流航行的“水翼飞艇”速度快,产生的噪音非常大,必须设法克服或减轻其影响。 3) 蓄水后小型鱼类和喜缓流、静水的鱼类增加,有利于满足长江江豚的食物需求。库区干流基本未见威胁长江江豚的有害渔业活动。但支流库湾分布的沉网等渔具是潜在的威胁。 4)长江江豚对栖息地的选择受食物条件影响较大。从长江中下游考察的经验来看,三峡干流很难找到类似中下游的栖息地,但在支流回水区有若干小面积的适合洲滩,适合江豚在其附近栖息。 5)对后期的运输、暂养、释放及跟踪监测等方案进行了初步设计。 综上所述,对渔业及航运活动进行一定的调控和管理后,将部分长江江豚群体从长江中下游引入三峡库区是一项极具潜力的、可行的迁地保护措施。但应注意控制外源污染对三峡库区水质的不利影响。
Other AbstractBaiji and Yangtze finless porpoise, two beautiful and cute mammals living in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, have been as human being’s neighbours for millions of years. In the past few decades, populations as well as habitats of these two animals have been decreasing and degrading significantly due to direct or indirect effect of human activities such as, water pollution, busy ship traffic, illegal fishing, hydro-project construction, sand dredging, and so on. During “Yangtze freshwater dolphin expedition 2006”, we failed to find any Baiji, and the population of the Yangtze finless porpoise in the main stream of Yangtze was estimated probably 1200 individuals. The drastic deterioration of the Yangtze ecological environment and the future of the cetaceans has become one of the hot topics in conservation community both at home and abroad. Initial success of ex-situ conservation of Yangtze finless porpoise has been achieved, but we also encountered some difficulties. In order to enlarge conservation scale, and establish more ex-situ pupulations of the porpoise, we have been considering the Three Gorges Reservoir as potential ex-situ conservation site of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and have conducted initial feasibility study on the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the environment of Three Gorges Reservoir is suitable for Yangtze finless porpoise’s living. The contents and results of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The overall water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir was relatively good, and water quality of the main stream was better than that of the tributaries. All water temperature, flow velocity, transparency, pH value, and hardness met the survival demand of the Yangtze finless porpoise. Organic pollutants were at low levels. Total coliform counts were lower than the highest levels in artificial dolphin rearing pool, but were at Grade Ⅲ of the “Environmental quality standards for surface water”(GB 3838-2002). The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphor nutrients were relatively high, but would not harm the porpoises’ survival once they were introduced into the reservoir. The concentrations of heavy metals met Grade Ⅰof the “Environmental quality standards for surface water”, except for Hg and Pb, which were at high levels in both the reservoir and main streams of the Yangtze River from Yichang to Shanghai. The overall concentration of heavy metals in the reservoir was not apparently different from that in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. 2) Ship traffic intensity in the Three Gorges Reservoir was much lower than that in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, moreover, twisted shoreline and deepened water will help the finless porpoise avoid ships. Underwater noise level was below hearing threshold of the finless porpoise, if not take large ships into consideration. The status was even better in the tributaries, where there were almost no large vessels traveling and underwater noise level was far lower than that in the main stream. However, the "hydrofoil airship", which travels on main stream of the reservoir at a speed of 60 km/h and caused horrible underwater noise, would impose threat on the finless porpoise. Measures must be taken to overcome or mitigate the negative impacts. 3) Small-sized fishes and fish species used to living in low flow or still waters have been getting to be big populations in the reservoir after impounding, which would benefit the porpoise in food supply. Harmful fishing gears, which have been one of the reasons for porpoise’s death in the middle and lower reaches, were seldom found in the main stream of the reservoir. But, the nets deployed under the water and across the tributaries in numerous numbers would be threats to the Yangtze finless porpoise. 4) The selections of habitat of the Yangtze finless porpoise was influenced largely by food conditions. It’s hard to find habitats in the main stream of the reservoir that were similar with those in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, but some backwater areas in the tributaries seemed suitable for porpoise’s inhabiting 5) Based on the environmental conditions, the temporary rearing and releasing sites for the porpoises have been primarily selected; the safe transportation method and monitoring plan after releasing the animals were also designed. In conclusion, the introduction of the Yangtze finless porpoise into the Three Gorges Reservoir would be a big potential and feasible measure to protect them from extinction in their nature habitats. However, fisheries as well as shipping activities in the reservoir must be regulated and controlled strictly. External pollution sources should also be kept away to ensure water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir in good status.
Pages85
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12454
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
黄亚东. 三峡库区作为长江江豚迁地保护水域可行性的初步研究[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.
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