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题名: 筑坝河流水文过程变化及生态流量研究
作者: 冯瑞萍
答辩日期: 2009-06-04
导师: 常剑波
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 长江 ; 汉江 ; 水文过程 ; 生态流量
其他题名: RESEARCH ON HYDROLOGY PROCESSES CHANGE AND ECOLOGICAL DISCHARGE IN DAMED RIVERS
摘要: 本研究在长期日流量数据的基础上,选定长江和汉江干流作为研究区域。主要研究内容是采用水文变动指标IHA(Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration)法分别对筑坝的汉江和长江干流主要控制点的水文过程变化进行了度量;取多年实测月流量系列的最小值作为相应月的最小生态流量,适宜生态流量过程选取年内丰平枯水期分别取50%,75%和80%保证率下的流量。其中,以汉江为例,计算了考虑丰平枯年际变化和无年际变化的两种模式下的生态流量,并进行对比。 本文研究主要目的是为评估筑坝河流水文情势变化提供一种有效方法,并为水利工程的生态调度提供参考。主要结果如下: 1. 汉江中游襄阳站的32个IHA水文参数中,高度改变有4个参数,中度改变有18个参数,低度改变有10个参数。水文参数变显著的变化是:在枯水期,流量增加,低流量脉冲出现次数和持续时间均减少;在汛期,虽然流量变化不大,年高流量脉冲出现次数和持续时间也减少;流量的上涨率平均值变小,且年际变化小,流量的逆转次数增加。襄阳站32个水文参数整体改变度分析的结果表明,该处水文情势变化在中度至高度改变之间,变化较大,此结果显示丹江口水库的兴建和运行极大地改变了该处的水文状况。 2. 在襄阳站,本文取年平均流量大于1710 m3/s、1040~1710 m3/s和小于1040 m3/s的年份为划分丰水年、平水年和枯水年的依据;取每年12月-次年3月为枯水期, 4月-11月为平水期, 7月-9月为丰水期,作为年内丰平枯水期划分的标准。在此基础上,计算考虑丰平枯年际变化和无年际变化的两种模式下的生态流量,得到的最小生态流量和适宜生态流量经调整后的Tennant法校验后,除极个别处于差的生态状况以外,流量基本符合该法的生态需求。 3. 从整体分析,长江干流主要控制点水文参数变化主要是:年内月平均流量中,1-4月枯季流量增加,6-7月汛期流量增加;寸滩和宜昌流量减少主要集中在下半年8-11月,汉口和大通流量减少的日期推迟,主要集中在10-11月;最小流量参数组的平均值增加,年最小1日流量日期均提前;干扰后呈现连续日上涨率减小,下降率增加的趋势。对比整体改变度发现,汉口站水文参数变化较为明显,处于中度改变等级。计算得到的最小生态流量和适宜生态流量经Tennant法校验后,基本符合该法的生态需求。
英文摘要: Based on the data of long-term daily discharge, this paper took the mainstreams of the Hanjiang River and Yangtze River as study areas. The study focused on analyzing the hydrology processes change in the critical sections in the mainstreams of the study rivers ,taking the method of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA).And the study selected the least value of monthly discharge as the minimum ecological discharge(MED), and the appropriate ecological discharge(AED) was computed by frequency analysis method. At last , taking the Hanjiang River for instance , the ecological discharge were calculated in two conditions with interannual variation and without. The purpose of this research can provide an effective way to evaluate hydrological regime change in damed rivers, also can offer a reference for re-operation of hydropower projects. The main results are as follows: 1. In Xiangyang section of the Hanjiang River , there were 4 parameters belonging to high alteration, 18 parameters belonging to moderate alteration and 10 parameters belonging to low alteration in all IHA parameters. The obvious hydrology parameters alterations were as follows: in dry season, the discharge increased,at the sanme time, the counts and duration of low pulse reduced; in flood season , the discharge had no visible change, the counts and duration of high pulse reduced as well; the average and interannual variation of rise rate diminished; the number of reversals increased. The results of overall alteration showed the hydrology change of this site was between moderate and high alteration. It was suggested that the hydrology regime in Xiangyang was seriously affected by the construction and operation of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. 2. In Xiangyang,when the mean flow is more than 1710m3/s, the year is flood year; when the mean flow is less than 1040m3/s, the year is dry year; the remaining year is level year.This study classifyed the years by using this rule .And the water periods during one year were classifyed ,too. On this basis, the ecological discharges were calculated in two situations with interannual variability and without. It was evident that the MED and AED emendated by Tennant method satisfyed the ecological demands, except very few situation. 3. On the whole, the hydrological alteration of critical sections in the mainstreams of the Yangtze River mainly refered to: the discharge from January to April reduced, while the discharge from June to July increased; the date of discharge reduction in Cuntan and Yichang sections was mostly between August and November, whereas the date of discharge reduction in Hankou and Datong sections was postponed, mostly between October and November; the average discharges of minimum flow group increased , and the date of annual minimum flow advanced; the consecutive daily rise rate showed an downward tendency, while the consecutive daily fall rate showed an upward tendency. It was evident that the MED and AED emendated by Tennant method satisfyed the ecological demands.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12450
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
筑坝河流水文过程变化及生态流量研究.冯瑞萍[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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