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题名: 椭圆背角无齿蚌用于滇池重污染湖湾蓝藻水华控制的探讨
作者: 丁涛
答辩日期: 2009-06-04
导师: 宋立荣
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 滇池 ; 椭圆背角无齿蚌 ; 叶绿素a ; 摄食率 ; 围隔 ;
其他题名: Studies on the Control of Cyanobacterial Bloom by Using Anodonta woodiana elliptica Heude in Heavy Polluted Bay in Dianchi Lake
摘要: 近年来,水体富营养化已成为全球性环境问题,对富营养化水体的治理的要求日益迫切。但富营养化防治是水污染治理中十分棘手而又代价昂贵的问题。在水生态系统,浮游植物的生长不仅受到营养盐等环境因子的影响,而且受到生物因素的控制。这提供了一种可能:利用生物操纵法,通过改变水体生物群落结构来减少浮游植物的现存生物量,从而减少藻类水华的危害,达到改善水质的目的。 本试验运用生物操纵的原理,研究了椭圆背角无齿蚌不同生物密度、年龄大小对水体中叶绿素消长及营养盐的影响,为背角无齿蚌大规模投放滇池净化水质提供理论依据。同时研究了在不同暴露时间,不同污染水体对椭圆无齿蚌酶活性的影响,探讨将抗氧化酶作为滇池污染的生物标志物的可行性。 主要研究结果如下: 1,椭圆背角无齿蚌(Anodonta woodiana elliptica)的摄食率和体重的关系呈幂函数的关系,可以用以下公式表示:IR = aWb,W 为软体部干重,贝类的摄食率随着体重的增加而增大,但随着单位体重的增加而增幅减小,3龄蚌的摄食率大于1龄蚌的摄食率。处理的后水体中的叶绿素a的含量都明显下降,总体而言3龄蚌的净水效果优于1龄蚌。在放养密度与时间的选择上,并非放养密度越大,放养时间越长越好,半野外实验结果表明,放养2个三龄蚌(即每立方米20只),第8天时清除水体中叶绿素a效果最好 2)用吊养的方式比直接投放控藻效果好,可以有效清除水体中的叶绿素a并提高水体透明度。吊养的方式虽然对TN的去除效果不理想,但对水质的改善有效果,如对水体中TP的消除较明显,化学耗氧量有所减低。在两次围隔实验中,蚌的生物量为40个,即4.17只/m3为最佳,此时处理效果较好,放蚌多的围隔水质反而较差。 3)椭圆背角无齿蚌在秋季仍然具有一定的生长速度,相对于水生植物,底栖贝类在秋冬季的净化作用优势明显。椭圆背角无齿蚌的壳长与体重符合y=aXb的指数方程,y为体重(g),X为壳长(cm),且拟合度较高,符合相关报道。椭圆背角无齿蚌在消浪带的生长状况总体良好,但是体重最轻的小个体死亡率较高,且随吊笼里放置河蚌的生物量的增加而增加。综合前文关于河蚌清除水体叶绿素a效果的情况,放养规格以大型为好。 4)污染程度与SOD活性呈正相关,能够反应不同程度的污染。各样点环境条件对过氧化氢含量的增加是非常显著的(P<0.01)。过氧化氢含量能够反应不程度的污染,为方便操作,监测时选择血液即可。ACP活性在本实验条件下规律不明显,适宜较低浓度污染物的监测。监测无齿蚌血液中AKP活性更能反应其生理状况。蛋白质含量可以直观的表示生物体生长的状况,其含量的变化能直接说明生物体生长的健康状况。
英文摘要: Eutrophication in freshwater bodies has becoming a worldwide environmental problem in recent years. It becomes more and more urgent to control the eutrophication in lakes and reserviors.. However, prevention and treatment of eutrophication problems are not only intractable but also expensive during the remediation of water pollution. In the water ecosystem, the growth of phytoplankton is not only influenced by environment factors, but also controlled by biotic factors. It is possible to mitigate the biomass of phytoplankton by biomanipulation , namely, to mitigate the damage of algae bloom and improve the water quality by. regulating the structure of biotic community. Based on the principle of classical biomanipulation, effects of the density and age of Anodonta woodiana elliptica Heude on the decline of Chla and of nutrients were studied, which would provide a theoretical data for the application on the Control of Cyanobacterial Bloom by Using Anodonta woodiana elliptica Heude in Heavy Polluted Bay in Dianchi Lake. At the same time, Experiments on the effect of different exposure time, various polluted water on the enzyme activity of Anodonta woodiana elliptica were done to explore whether the antioxidant enzymes can be act as of biomarkers indicationg the polluted situation of Dianchi Lake. The main results are as followed: 1)The relationship of Anodonta woodiana Heude between ingestion rate (IR) and wet weight of tissue(W) can be represented by the allometric equation IR=aWb; the IR of three-year-old anodonta is higher than the one-year-old anodonta. The 3-year-old anodonta was founded to eliminate ChlorophyII a in water more efficient than one-year-old anodonta. Results showed that the the highest elimination rate of Chl a was occurred after anodontas (20 ind./m3) worked 8 days later. 2)Hanging culture is better than launching culture, for mussels suspended in the water column can clean up water in a wide range and rise SD. Though it can reduce the TP and CODMn obviously, the decrease of TN is not remarkable. The results indicate that the effect of elimination was the best when the density of mussels in enclosure was 40ind./m3. 3) The relationship between Shell length(X,cm) and Body weight (y) of anodontas living in Fubao Bay can be represented by the allometric equation: y=aXb.The litter anodonta has the higher death rate, and the higher density the higher death rate. In a word, 3-year-old anodontas were adapted to living in heavy polluted water. 4) The activity of SOD might indicate the lever of pollution, for it correlated positively with the lever of polluted water quality. .And the content of H2O2 in the body would increase when the water quality turned worse. For simple operation, we can only choose blood tissue. ACP is suitable as biomarker in the light polluted water, and AKP can reflect the body’s physiological condition. The content of protein also indicate organisms’ growth and health conditions
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12446
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
椭圆背角无齿蚌用于滇池重污染湖湾蓝藻水华控制的探讨.丁涛[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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