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富营养湖泊底泥对沉水植被重建的影响及底泥改良措施研究
Alternative TitleEffects of Sediment from Eutrophic Lakes on Submerged Macrophytes Restoration and Sediment Amendation Measures
吴娟
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor吴振斌
2009-06-07
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword富营养化 湖泊 底泥 沉水植被重建 厌氧 光照 改良 植物修复
Abstract在富营养化湖泊中恢复和重建沉水植被的工作中,底泥物理、化学和生物特性都会影响到恢复工作的成功与否。本文针对月湖底泥的理化性质,同时结合实验室实验,研究两大关键生态因子—光照和底泥厌氧环境,对几种常见沉水植物生长和生理的影响,并探讨改良技术(底泥晾晒和植物修复)对底泥性质和植物生长的影响。主要研究结果如下: 1、月湖底泥TN、TP和有机碳含量存在明显的表层富积现象;位于排污口附近的样点底泥含量明显大于其它样点含量,位于湖心的样点,污染程度较轻;季节对底泥TN和底泥TP的影响不明显。不同样点底泥的氧化还原电位(Eh)不同,且受季节的影响,在有机碳含量最高的排污口附近,Eh值较低,并且在6月份时达到最低值;Eh值对间隙水的氮磷含量、硫化物含量均有一定影响。 2、底泥氮磷和有机碳含量对沉水植物的氮磷含量影响显著,植物TN与底泥TN、有机碳和间隙水TN之间、植物TP与间隙水TP之间的相关性比较明显(p<0.01);底泥营养也影响了植物的碳氮合成和代谢物;相对于较贫瘠的粘土底质来说,月湖底泥有利于植物生长。 3、向底泥中投加蔗糖可以作为一种较短时间 (1个月)内模拟底泥厌氧环境的实验方法。 4、底泥厌氧环境对沉水植物萌发和生物量增加有抑制作用,而且因低光照而加剧;轻度的底泥厌氧环境(如0.1%的蔗糖投加处理)却对根系生长或生理代谢有促进作用;底泥中的厌氧环境以及因此产生的硫化物毒性是导致沉水植物不能成功重建的重要原因。 5、晾晒对底泥氨氮和硫化物的释放有抑制作用,在一段时间内提高底泥氧化还原电位,有利于植物生长。底泥堆场的植物修复研究表明,保持干旱条件对底泥的修复有利。植物对底泥氮磷的积累因种类、季节和组织部位不同而不同,一般叶比茎和根积累量更高。 总的来说,月湖营养盐和有机污染负荷较高,可能对沉水植物生长和重建产生显著影响;底泥厌氧环境是影响沉水植物生长的重要胁迫因子;底泥晾晒和植物修复可以作为底泥原位修复和疏浚后的处理措施。
Other AbstractThe chemical, physical and biotic characteristics of sediment are important determinants in restoration of submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes. The chemical and physical properites of sediment in Yuehu Lake, a small eutrophic shallow lake, were investigated. The effects of point source pollution, sampling seasons and sediment depth on the contents of nutrient and organic carbon and redox condition of sediment were determined. Whilst the relationships between sediment characteristics and submerged macrophytes were analyzed. In addition, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of light intensity and sediment anoxia on gorwth and physiology of submerged macrophytes. Finally, the impact of sediment drying and phytoremediation, as technologies of sediment amendation, on sediment characteristics and submerged macrophytes were studied. The main results were summarized as below: 1. The concerntrations of TN, TP and organic carbon in sediment of Yuehu Lake showed significant pollutants accumulated in surficial sediment. The concerntrations of TN and TP in sediment did not varied with season. However, the redox potension (Eh) of sediment in different sampling sites were different and were varied with season, the Eh values were low in the sediment near the sewage outlet, and reached the minimums in June. 2. The concentrations of N and P in submerged macrophyte were significantly affected by those nutrient and organic carbon in sediment. Compared with clay, the sediment from Yuehu Lake resulted in increased concentrations of chlorophyll, soluble carbonhydrate and soluble protein in submerged macrophytes growing on it, and antioxidative system of plants responsed differently to different sediment types. 3. Sucrose addition into sediment could be used as a method to simulate sediment anoxia within a period time (one month). 4. The biomass and germination of submerged macrophytes were significantly inhibited by sediment anoxia. Medium light intensity might alleviate this inhibition, but light had little effect when sediment anoxia was severe. Howerver, low level of sediment anoixa (0.1% sucrose addition) had favorable effects on root growth and metabolism of submerged macrophytes. Sediment anoxia and the porewater sulfide exposure were interpreted as important factors involving in the failure of macrophyte restorations in eutrophic lakes. 5. Sediment drying could inhibite the releases of ammonia and sulfide from sediment and improve the redox potentials of sediment within a period of time, thus benified the growth of submerged macrophytes. Drying benefited phytoremediation of sediment. Nutrient accumulations in plant were different in different plant species, season and plant organ, and the concentration of nutrient in leaf was higher than those in stem and root generally. In conclusion, the inner loadings of nutrient and organic pollution are excessive in Yuehu Lake, probably hamper the restoration of submerged macrophytes. Sediment anoixa is one of important mechanisms by which sediment affect the macrophyte restoration.Sediment drying and phytoremedation can be used as effective technologies for in-situ remediation of polluted sediment and dredged sediment.
Pages106
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12442
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吴娟. 富营养湖泊底泥对沉水植被重建的影响及底泥改良措施研究[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.
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