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题名: 人工湿地的脱氮效能及机理研究
作者: 张列宇
答辩日期: 2009-06-03
导师: 刘永定
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 人工湿地 ; 脱氮效率 ; 脱氮机理 ; 短程硝化-反硝化反应 ; 限制性曝气
其他题名: NITROGEN REMOVAL EFFICIENY AND MECHANISM IN CONSTTRUTED WETLAND
摘要: 人工湿地由于其建设成本低、运行费用低及管理维护简单,在我国一些地区已推广应用,并且应用范围仍有延展,如有人试图将人工湿地技术用于处理市政污水、分散点源污染、农村面源污染、养殖废水及工业废水等。人工湿地对有机物及SS具有较高且稳定的去除效率,然而氮的去除效率,特别是冬季氮的去除效率非常的低,因此湿地常以氮为限制因子,进行污染去除设计。对人工湿地脱氮机理的研究尚存争议,迄今还难以建立一个广泛认同的数学模型或经验公式来指导各地的设计,目前的设计主要以同一地理区域(纬度、海拨)内现存湿地或构建湿地运行中氮的处理能力为参考依据。由于可参考的数据过少,且现有可参考的文献多数是实验规模的湿地,给湿地设计带来了相当大的难度。许多湿地设计者为保证人工湿地的冬季运行效果,满足相应的出水水质指标而加大湿地的面积,这样不仅浪费的了土地,还增加了建设成本。本文以上海地区处理高碳高氮、低碳高氮和低碳低氮等3种类型废水的3座湿地为研究对象,研究其脱氮效率及其季节性变化,旨在揭示湿地脱氮效率的变化规律从而为人工湿地的设计提供经验参数。同时研究处理3种类型废水的5座湿地的脱氮机理,为人工湿地的设计提供理论依据,并基于上述两项研究成果,探讨低能高效曝气型人工湿地的途径。 主要研究结论如下: 1) 人工湿地的脱氮效率随着季节变化而波动,氮的去除效率与温度密切相关,夏季高温时,人工湿地的脱氮效率最高。冬季低温时人工湿地的脱氮效率最低。 2)处理不同类型的废水,湿地的脱氮效率是不同的。处理高碳高氮的农村生活污水(海桥村)的湿地中,NH3-N的的去除率为1.18g/m-2d-1,TN的去除率为1.25g/m-2d-1。处理低碳高氮废水(黑臭河道)时,NH3-N的去除率1.22gNH3-Nm-2•d-1,TN的去除率为1.44g TNm-2•d-1。在处理低碳低氮的污染水(富营养河流)时,湿地对氨氮和总氮的去除率分别为0.123g NH3-Nm-2•d-1和0.169gTNm-2•d-1。因此在借鉴相同纬度与海拔地区的经验时,需要考虑到湿地处理污水的类型和水质特征。 3)湿地脱氮效率与湿地的运行年龄有关,随着年龄的增长,湿地正常运行的脱氮效率逐年增加。 4)处理废水的类型不同,人工湿地脱氮机理的类型亦大不相同,同时发现了微生物脱氮的“新途径”—短程硝化反硝化反应。处理高浓度有机物、高浓度氨氮的农村生活污水时,湿地的脱氮机理主要是微生物脱氮,其中短程硝化的反应对氮去除的贡献率约为23%,硝化反硝化反应对氮的去除率约占77%。处理低碳高氮的黑臭河道废水时,两座老段浦人工湿地约50%的氮通过短程硝化-反硝化反应去除,而北夏湿地中,约20%氮通过短程硝化-反硝化反应去除。在处理低碳低氮的富营养化的河道水体时,氨氮的挥发、植物的吸收及微生物的氮转化对氮的去处均有明显的贡献,分别占TN去除的37.1%、29.0%及33.8%。 5)限制性曝气在人工湿地中的运用是一低能高效的创新的方法,与传统湿地相比其效率更高、技术经济性能更好,且具有较高的污染物去除率, BOD的去除率16.7 g d-1m-2。氨氮的去除率为4.54g d-1m-2,TN的去除4.99g d-1m-2。而且由于使用土地的减少,建设费用亦会相应的减少。曝气系统的耗电量仅为传统生物接触氧化法的28.8%。
英文摘要: Constructed wetland is widely used in some regions of China as a kind of technology for municipal wastewater treatment, such as decentralized wastewater, drainge from non-point rural pollution, aquaculture wastewater and some non-toxic industrial wastewater, due to its low cost of construction and operation. Organic matter and suspend solid removal efficiency was normally quite high in the constructed wetlands but low nitrogen removal efficiency remained to be enhanced. Thus, the nitrogen removal efficiency was usually the most focused consideration in design of constructed wetlands. Moreover, the mechanism of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands was disputed, and the mathematic model of nitrogen removal was difficult to build. Generally, the constructed wetlands were designed according to empirical parameters of the similar wetlands in the same latitude and latitude. Unfortunately,there was only a fat lot empirical parameters about the constructed wetland, so as to employ larger land area by the designers in order to meet the effluent standard, the construction cost increased as a result. In this study, nitrogen efficiency and seasonal variation of three constructed wetlands for three types of wastewater treatment were investgated in order to find the proper parameters for the constructed wetland design. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of nitrogen removal in five constructed wetlands were studied, and the cost-effective aeration constructed wetland hereby was worked over in development. Main results are shown as the followings: 1) Nitrogen removal efficiency in constructe wetlands varied with season. The removal rate was closely related with temperature. The highest removal rate was found in summer and lowest in winter. 2) Nitrogen removal efficiency in constructe wetlands varied with the types of wastewater on the other hand. In the constructed wetland employed for high carbon and high nitrogen wastewater treatment, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen was 1.18g/m-2d-1 and the total nitrogen was 1.25g/m-2d-1. In the constructed wetland for low carbon and high nitrogen wastewater treatment, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen was 1.22g/m-2d-1 and the total nitrogen was 1.44g/m-2d-1. In the constructed wetland for low carbon and low nitrogen wastewater treatment, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen was 0.123g/m-2d-1 and the total nitrogen was 0.169 g/m-2d-1. Thus, to the types of wastewater must be paid more attention in the constructed wetland design. 3) The constructed wetland nitrogen efficiency was also related to its operation age. Following the constructed wetland ran on the rails, the nitrogen efficiency of the constructed wetland would be enhanced. 4) The mechanisms of nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands were different according to the types of wastewater treated. When the high carbon and high nitrogen wastewater was treated, the nitrogen was removed from the wastewater by the microbial process. 23% nitrogen was removed by partial nitrification and denitrification, 77% nitrogen was removed by classic nitrification and denitrification. When the low carbon and high nitrogen wastewater was treated, 50% nitrogen was removed from wastewater in the Laoduanpu constructed wetland by partial nitrification and denitrification, and 20% nitrogen was removed from wastewater in the Beixia constructed wetland by the “novel” process. When the low carbon and low nitrogen wastewater was treated, 23%, 18% and 21% nitrogen were removed from the wastewater by the process of volatilization, plant uptake and microbial process respectively. 5) Limited aeration in the operation of constructed wetland was a cost-effective method. Compared to the traditional wetland, it was more economical and with higher pollutant removal efficiency. The BOD removal rate was 16.7g d-1m-2, the ammonium nitrogen was 4.54g d-1m-2, and the total nitrogen was 4.99 g d-1m-2. Due to less land area was used, less construction cost was needed accordingly. The electricity consumption of limited aeration system accounted for only 28.8% of the traditional biological oxidation process consumed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12428
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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人工湿地的脱氮效能及机理研究.张列宇[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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