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题名: 微量元素铁锰对异育银鲫营养生理的影响及游离棉酚对两种鱼血液毒理学的影响
作者: 潘磊
答辩日期: 2009-05-31
导师: 谢平
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: ; 肝铁蓄积 ; 血液指标 ; ; 特定生长率 ; 组织锰蓄积 ; 游离棉酚 ; 溶血性贫血 ; 异育银鲫 ; 南方鲶 ;
其他题名: The effects of iron and manganese on nutritional physiology in juvenile gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, and the toxic effects of free gossypol on hematological parameters of two fishes
摘要: 本研究由微量元素铁锰对异育银鲫营养生理的影响和游离棉酚对两种鱼血液毒理学的影响两部分组成。微量元素铁锰对异育银鲫营养生理的影响采用微流水养殖系统,以异育银鲫为实验对象,在半精制饲料中添加不同含量的铁或锰,通过长期生长实验,采用特定生长率、饲料效率、存活率、组织铁或锰蓄积等测定指标来确定异育银鲫幼鱼对微量元素铁和锰的需求量。游离棉酚对两种鱼血液毒理学影响的研究采用流水系统,以南方鲶和鲤作为研究对象,通过急性实验,探究腹腔注射游离棉酚对南方鲶和鲤血液指标的影响。 主要结果和结论如下: 1.饲料铁含量对异育银鲫的特定生长率、饲料效率、存活率、红细胞数、血红蛋白、红细胞平均体积、红细胞平均血红蛋白量以及红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度均没有显著性影响(P>0.05)。但是,饲料铁含量对异育银鲫的肝铁蓄积和血球容积比有显著性影响(P<0.05)。基于需维持异育银鲫幼鱼适宜的肝铁蓄积和血球容积比的考虑,异育银鲫幼鱼对微量元素铁的需求量应为202 mg Fe/kg。 2. 饲料中的不同锰含量对异育银鲫的摄食量没有显著性影响。但是饲料中的不同锰含量对异育银鲫的特定生长率、饲料效率、肥满度、肝脏总超氧化物歧化酶酶和组织锰蓄积有显著性影响(P>0.05)。随着饲料锰含量的增加,异育银鲫的特定生长率、饲料效率、肝脏总超氧化物歧化酶酶活性和组织锰蓄积显著性增加,而肥满度显著性降低(P<0.05)。基于需维持异育银鲫幼鱼必要的增重和适宜的组织锰蓄积,异育银鲫幼鱼对微量元素锰的需求量为13.77 mg Mn/kg。 3. 南方鲶对游离棉酚的24-h, 48-h, 72-h, 96-h半致死量分别为225.21 mg/kg, 84.62 mg/kg, 59.91 mg/kg, 55.68 mg/kg。注射高剂量游离棉酚实验鱼的血液指标(RBC, Hb和Ht)48h后显著低于其他处理组(P<0.05),且此降低具有时间效应。注射低剂量游离棉酚实验鱼的血液指标(RBC, Hb和Ht)和对照组无显著差异(P>0.05)。和对照组实验鱼的红细胞形态相比,注射高剂量游离棉酚实验鱼的红细胞形态异常并发生溶血。实验结果表明:游离棉酚会导致实验鱼贫血,其机制之一可能是溶血性贫血。 4. 鲤对游离棉酚的24-h, 48-h, 72-h, 96-h半致死量分别为236.80 mg/kg, 118.27 mg/kg, 80.96 mg/kg, 71.11 mg/kg。注射高剂量游离棉酚实验鱼的血液指标(RBC, Hb和Ht)48h后显著低于其他处理组(P<0.05),且此降低具有时间效应。注射低剂量游离棉酚实验鱼的血液指标(RBC, Hb和Ht)和对照组无显著差异(P>0.05)。和对照组实验鱼的红细胞脆性相比,注射高剂量游离棉酚实验鱼的红细胞脆性增加。实验结果表明:游离棉酚会导致实验鱼贫血,其机制之一是溶血性贫血。
英文摘要: The present studies were aimed to determine the effects of iron and manganese on nutritional physiology in juvenile gibel carp(Carassius auratus gibelio) and to evaluate the hematological effects of gossypol on southern catfish(Silurus meridionalis)and common carp(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus). The gibel carp study consisted of two growth trails. In the first trail, a 83-day growth trail was conducted using a flow-through system to determin the dietary iron requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Six purified diets supplemented with different levels of iron (0, 10, 30, 60, 100 and 200 mg/kg) (as ferrous sulfate) were fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight 2.12±0.00 g per fish). In the second trail, a 68-day growth trial was conducted in a flow-through system to determine the dietary manganese requirement of juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Seven purified diets containing 7.21, 8.46, 9.50, 10.50, 13.03, 19.72 and 22.17 mg manganese (as manganic sulfate) per kilogram diet were fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight 3.21±0.01 g). The gossypol study consisted of two acute trails. In the first trail, hematological responses of southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) to intraperitoneal injection of free gossypol were studied in a flow-through system. In the second trail, hematological responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) to intraperitoneal injection of free gossypol were studied in a flow-through system. The main results were shown as follows: 1. The addition of iron to the basal diet did not significantly affect the specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE), survival, red blood cell amount (RBC), hemoglobin content (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Hepatic iron concentration and hematocrit (Hct) were significantly influenced by dietary iron level (P<0.05). On the basis of the iron concentration for the maintenance of optimum hepatic iron concentration and Hct, the dietary iron requirement of juvenile gibel carp was estimated to be approximately 202 mg Fe/kg diet. 2. Dietary manganese levels did not significantly affect feed intake of the fish. Specific growth rate, feed efficiency, total hepatic superoxide dismutase activity, carcass and skeletal manganese concentrations increased significantly with increased dietary manganese (P<0.05) while condition factor decreased significantly (P<0.05). Dietary requirement of manganese was 13.77 mg Mn per kilogram diet. 3. The 24-h, 48-h, 72-h, 96-h LC50s for southern catfish to free gossypol were 225.21 mg/kg, 84.62 mg/kg, 59.91 mg/kg, 55.68 mg/kg, respectively. This is the first to determine LC50s of gossypol to aquatic animals. In a sub-lethal test, changes in red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) of the catfish were measured after 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h of exposure to 0, 20 and 40 mg gossypol/kg BD. Compared with the control, fish in the high-dose group showed a time-dependent decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht (P<0.05), with statistically significant alterations at 48 h post injection, while fish in the low dose group did not show significant difference in RBC count, Hb and Ht (P>0.05). Compared with the control, fish in the high-dose group showed abnormal erythrocyte features and hemolysis. One possible mechanism of anemia caused by free gossypol might be hemolysis. 4. The 24-h, 48-h, 72-h, 96-h LC50s for common carp to free gossypol were 236.80 mg/kg, 118.27 mg/kg, 80.96 mg/kg, 71.11 mg/kg, respectively. In a sub-lethal test, red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) of the catfish were measured after 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h of exposure to 0, 20 and 60 mg gossypol/kg BD. Compared with the control, fish in the high-dose group showed a time-dependent decrease in RBC, Hb and Ht (P<0.05), with statistically significant alterations at 48 h post injection, while fish in the low dose group did not show significant difference in RBC count, Hb and Ht (P>0.05). Compared with the control, fish in the high-dose group showed siganificantly higher maximal and mimimal fragility than fish in other treated groups. Similar to southern catfish, one possible mechanism of anemia in common carp caused by free gossypol might also be hemolysis.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12410
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
微量元素铁锰对异育银鲫营养生理的影响及游离棉酚对两种鱼血液毒理学的影响.潘磊[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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