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香溪河底栖藻类对流域主要人类活动的响应
Alternative TitleThe response of benthic algae to the impact of mainly human activities in Xiangxi River Watershed
贾兴焕
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor蔡庆华
2008-06-13
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword底栖藻类 香溪河 群落动态 人类活动 土地利用 大型水电站 酸性矿山废水 响应
Abstract1. 于2004年9月至2007年6月对香溪河干流及两条主要支流上11个样点的底栖藻类进行调查。研究期间线形曲壳藻为绝对优势种,表现为在各季节之间的稳定分布;而异极藻、颤藻及极小冠盘藻等则表现为一定季节上的差异分布。 季节变化上,香溪河流域底栖藻类的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、物种数、密度和叶绿素a浓度均表现为冬春季较高,夏秋季较低。虽然叶绿素a浓度季节变化较大,但是时间序列自相关性分析表明各河流叶绿素a时间序列稳定。群落相似性分析结果也是如此。空间分布上,底栖藻类存在很大的异质性,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、物种数、密度和叶绿素a浓度均表现为高岚河最高,香溪河干流次之,九冲河最低。 2. 在常规监测的基础上,于2004年6月将采样点拓展到全流域(参与本文分析的样点为76个)。 根据流域特征,应用聚类分析将76个样点分为4组,各组理化指标、主要优势种、藻类密度及叶绿素a浓度等均存在很大差异。CCA分析表明土地利用对流域底栖藻类空间异质性影响很大。沉积指数和营养硅藻指数表明香溪河流域整体上沉积及营养水平不高,为中富营养型水体,其中以九冲河水质最好,古夫河和干流次之,高岚河水质相对较差。 3.于2004年9月至2007年6月份,对古夫河上受古洞口一级水库影响的GF04样点及高岚河上参照样点GL03进行每月采样。 研究期间两样点营养盐、温度、流速等理化指标差异不显著(p>0.05),说明资源胁迫对GF04、GL03的影响一致;根据弗鲁德数划分为三种生境(静水、缓流和湍流生境),弗鲁德数分析表明两样点水动力学差异显著。水动力学及生境的变化是影响底栖藻类群落的重要因素。非着生型硅藻、直立型硅藻、有柄型硅藻及其代表性优势种可以很好的反映大型电站不定期放水对河流生态系统的影响。 4.对受酸性矿山废水影响的高岚河进行分析。结果表明受酸性矿山废水影响地区藻类在2001年7月至2007年7月几年间恢复很快,Margalef指数、Simpson指数、物种丰富度、密度及叶绿素a浓等明显升高,优势种由耐酸物种向非耐酸种转变,群落结构也存在很大差异,但藻类仍然受其影响严重,Al、Cu、Zn、Mn等是影响该地区底栖藻类的重要因素,底栖藻类密度、叶绿素a浓度、无灰干重、自养指数及群落组成等指标均可以很好地指示这种影响。
Other Abstract1. Benthic algae of eleven sites in Xiangxi River and its two major tributaries (Gaolan River and Jiuchong River) was investigated from September 2004 to June 2007. The diatom Achnanthes linearis was the most predominant species, with relative abundance of 42.28%. Temporally, Shannon-Wiener index, algal richness, density and chlorophyll a concentration tended to be higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Though there was significant seasonal variation of chlorophyll a concentration, ACF indicated that chlorophyll a concentration had high temporal stability in each river. So did PSC similarity. Spatially, benthic algae had highly heterogeneity in Xiangxi River. Shannon-Wiener index, algal richness, density and chlorophyll a concentration were the highest in Gaolan River, then in Xiangxi River, and the lowest occurred in Jiuchong River. 2. The benthic algae and its relationship with landscape characteristics of the watershed was investigated in June 2004 (there were 76 sites used for analyzing in this thesis). Based on the landscape characteristics of the watershed, all the 76 sites were divided into 4 groups. There were significant differences of physicochemical variables, main dominant species, algal density and chlorophyll a concentration among groups. Land use was the main factor influencing the heterogeneity of benthic algae in the watershed. According to siltation index and TDI, the siltation and trophic status of the watershed were not very high, normally in the mesotrophic or eutrophic status, which was best in Jiuchong River, then in Gufu and Xiangxi River, and relatively poorer in Gaolan River. 3. In order to explore the impact of the large hydropower stations on the benthic algae, GF04 (which was impacted by Gudongkou Rservoir 1 in Gufu River) and GL03 (which was not impacted by reservoir in Gaolan River) were carried out monthly sampling from September 2004 to June 2007. There were no significant differences of physicochemical variables such as nutrients, temperature and velocity between GF04 and GL03 during the sampling time, which meant that the impacts of resource stress were consistent between GF04 and GL03. Froude number showed hydrodynamics were different between these two sites.The variation of hydrodynamics and habitats were the main factors influencing benthic algae. Results indicated that there were significant differences on PSC similarity, unattached assemblages, erect assemblages and stalked assemblage and their representative species between GF04 and GL03. Evidently a large hydropower station had severe effect on aquatic habitats and benthic algae. 4. In order to evaluate the potential impact of acid mine drainage on the benthic algal communities in Gaolan River, we chose three sites in pyrite area as impaired group (I), four uninfluenced sites were taken as control group (C) and five sites as recovery group (R). We compared the characteristics of benthic algae among July 2001, June 2004 and July 2007. The results indicated that Margalef index, Simpson index, algal richness, density and chlorophyll a concentration increased obviously, the dominant species changed from tolerant acidic species to other species, and the community also changed greatly, which meant that the impacted area had been restoring. While according to CCA and correlation analysis, Al, Cu, Zn and Mn were the most important factors influencing benthic algae. Benthic algal density, chlorophyll a concentration, AFDM and AI could better indicate the impacts of acid mine drainage.
Pages117
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12330
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贾兴焕. 香溪河底栖藻类对流域主要人类活动的响应[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2008.
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