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题名: 葛仙米的野外生理生态学研究
作者: 陈林
答辩日期: 2008-06-17
导师: 胡征宇
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 葛仙米 ; 生理学 ; 生态学 ; 资源保护 ; 除草剂 ; 化肥
其他题名: STUDIES ON THE FIELD ECOPHYSIOLOGY OFNOSTOC SPHAEROIDES (CYANOBACTERIUM)
摘要: 本论文以葛仙米为研究对象,通过野外原位试验、野外调查和室内模拟实验等方法,获得葛仙米最新的野外资源量及其分布特点,详细认识葛仙米生境的气候、水源、土壤、生物和人为因子等生态因子,探讨葛仙米资源现状与环境因子的关系。 通过普查与样方调查,绘制葛仙米的资源现状分布图,发现其分布面积仅占原来的1/5,年自然产量不足0.5t;水源分布和土壤磷矿质的含量是影响葛仙米分布的关键因子;田间管理和农作物的种植差异对葛仙米的分布也有影响;水中营养盐、土壤有机质等因素不是导致葛仙米产量差异的关键因子。目前由于经济利益的驱动和社会关注,葛仙米的资源恶化程度有所缓解;同时鉴于灌溉水渠的修建及其他保护措施的实施,预计葛仙米的资源量在未来的几年将有所上升。 室内模拟实验结果表明,在30℃黑暗条件下培养60天后,葛仙米形成类似球形细胞(Coccoid Cell)的形态,在恢复光照后细胞重新生长,发生细胞分化,进而形成微群体;微群体形态可能是葛仙米在长达数月的水稻种植期中消失,在水稻收割后重新出现的藻种来源。 研究不同氮源条件下的葛仙米的生长、光合活性、光合色素和膜透性,并探索了稻田中化肥的使用与葛仙米资源量降低间的关系。结果表明铵盐和尿素的使用对葛仙米表现出毒害作用,导致大量群体破裂、溶解。同时碳酸氢铵使用引起葛仙米生物量的显著降低,试验中所有浓度的尿素、碳酸氢铵的使用均抑制葛仙米的生长。生长在碳酸氢铵添加区域中的葛仙米表现出大群体比例增加的种群结构,表现出低的生长速率。硝酸盐添加区域中葛仙米有最大的光合作用效率和最高的光合色素含量;无氮对照和硝酸盐区域中Fv/Fm都高于其他处理。尿素和碳酸氢铵在试验中的所有浓度都抑制葛仙米的Fv/Fm。尿素和碳酸氢铵的使用导致光合色素的漂白和细胞膜稳定性的破坏,发生光合色素含量的降低和细胞膜透性的增大。 用不同浓度的丁草胺处理葛仙米,结果显示低浓度(5 mg•L-1 )丁草胺使其光合作用、呼吸作用和光合系统Ⅱ活性增强,高浓度丁草胺(>5 mg•L-1 )限制其光合作用、呼吸作用和光合系统Ⅱ活性。同时丁草胺对葛仙米膜结构和功能具有破坏作用,随着丁草胺处理浓度增大,质膜透性不断增大,丙二醛和超氧自由基阴离子含量升高;在低浓度丁草胺处理时,类胡萝卜素含量增加,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性增强,高浓度丁草胺处理时,类胡萝卜素含量降低,SOD活性下降;表明葛仙米对低浓度的丁草胺胁迫具有一定的耐受能力,但高浓度的丁草胺对其生理和代谢构成威胁。 通过以上研究,发现葛仙米的资源量下降主要由铵态氮肥和尿素、除草剂的大量使用引起,建议通过限制稻田中除草剂的使用,以硝酸盐氮肥或者有机肥料代替铵态氮肥和尿素等措施加强葛仙米野生资源的保护。
英文摘要: The ecophysiology of an edible Cyanbacterium of Nostoc sphaeroides were studied in this research. In order to gain insight into the relationship between wild yield and environment factors such as climate, water, soil and human activity and so on, methods of physiology, ecology, wild investigatation and culture have been used in this research. The main results were the following: The latest wild resource and distribution area of N. shpaeroides were investigated by using methods of general survey and sample survey, the results showed that current annual yield was less than 0.5 ton, the area of habitat was less than one fifth of its used to be. Distribution of N. shpaeroides depended on content of water and phosphorus in soil, which might be limiting factors for its distribution in wild conditions. Difference in field management and crop planted also resulted in different distribution of N. shpaeroides. However, nutrient content in water and organic substance in soil were not limiting factors for distribution of N. shpaeroides, which was considered as the limiting factors for its distribution in previous report. The decline of N. shpaeroides was slowed and methods to conserve the habitat of N. shpaeroides were processed in our investigation period, resulted from more attention paid from government and the high economic benefits. It is reasonable to assume that the wild yield of this species will increase in the following years. After treated colonies of N. shpaeroides with simulated culture condition as it grew in the period of rice field, the coccoid cells were investigated after cultured at 30℃ in darkness for 60 days. After isolated coccoid cells were transferred to fresh BG110 medium, the cell growth and development were recovered and formed colonies later. The result indicated that coccoid cells might be the algal seeds for next season’s growth after 4 months long time disappeared. In the present research, growth, photosynthetic activity, pigment content, and membrane permeability of Nostoc sphaeroides grown in different nitrogen resources including urea, ammonium, and nitrate and in N-free control were investigated to gain insight into the relationship between declined production of N. sphaeroides and application of nitrogen fertilizers in paddy fields. Results indicated that ammonium and urea were drastically toxic to N. sphaeroides, triggered a lot of colonies broke and lysed. Additionally, rapidly decrease in biomass was found in plots added ammonium, and seriously inhibition of growth was found in the application of urea and ammonium at all the three levels in experiment. Colonies grown in plots added ammonium was apt to form a distribution with proportion of larger size colonies increased, indicated a low growth rate. The steepest initial slope (α) and highest photosynthesis pigment content belonged to nitrate grown colonies and the highest photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) belonged to N-free and nitrate grown colonies. Both urea and ammonium had inhibitory effect on Fv/Fm, regardless of the concentrations used in experiment. Application of urea and ammonium resulted in pigment bleached and membrane damaged, leaded to decrease in pigment content and increase in membrane permeability. Our finding suggested that extensive and abusive application of urea and ammonium fertilizer might be an important factor limiting the productivity of N. sphaeroides. The effects of butachlor on the physiological activity and cell metabolizable products of N. sphaeroides were focused in this study. After exposure to the different concentrations of butachlor, it was found that photosynthetic rate, respiration rate, and photosystem II activity improved when the concentration of butachlor below 5 mg•L-1, however, the reverse results were obtained when the concentration of butachlor was above 5 mg•L-1. Meanwhile, the structure and biological function of the N. sphaeroides were destructed under stress, the permeability of plasma membrane of N. sphaeroides increased as well as the contents of MDA and O2.-with the concentration of butachlor increasing. While the content of carotenoids increased and the activity of SOD improved to resist the damage of butachlor when N. sphaeroides was exposed to low concentration of butachlor. But for the actual using concentration, this resistance was quite limited, so it is necessary to limit the use of butachlor in order to protect the habitat of Ge-Xian-Mi.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12326
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
葛仙米的野外生理生态学研究.陈林[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2008.20-25
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