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题名: 基于水声学的长江葛洲坝江段鱼类时空分布研究及GIS建模
作者: 陶江平
答辩日期: 2009-06-04
导师: 常剑波 ; 乔晔
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 渔业声学 ; 声呐 ; 葛洲坝 ; 中华鲟 ; 时空分布 ; GIS
其他题名: Hydroacoustic mapping on fish spatial-temporal distribution in the Gezhouba Dam Reach, Yangtze River
摘要: 本论文采用水声学方法对葛洲坝江段中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)的繁殖群体数量和时空分布状态进行评估,并建立可信度较高的中华鲟声信号判别模式;同时对该江段其他鱼类在中华鲟产卵前后的资源丰度及时空分布状态进行了探测研究,并建立鱼类时空分布的GIS模型。调查研究区域主要集中在葛洲坝至烟收坝长约16km的江段,水面面积约为16km2。调查研究的时间在2005~2007年的10~12月(即中华鲟的繁殖季节)以及2008年5月(长江鱼类的主要繁殖季节)。其研究结论分述如下: 1、 通过逐步判别分析方法和主成分分析方法对中华鲟的声信号进一步分析和判断。结果显示:该方法对中华鲟声信号的判别的正确率为90.9%,对其他鱼类信号的判别正确率为98.4%。对于中华鲟的时空分布状态,在纵向空间上中华鲟主要分布于葛洲坝坝下至庙嘴江段约3.4km长的江段,在该区域分布数量占到总体的70%以上,其余江段长约12km的江段分布数量不到30%,在垂直空间上中华鲟平均分布的水深为17.5m,喜居于10~20m水深位置。中华鲟分布水深年际之间无显著差异(P>0.05),其分布对水深和分布区域有一定的选择性,喜居较深位置,但是其分布数量与分布水深之间并无相关关系。 通过声呐探测结合食卵鱼解剖结果对中华鲟繁殖群体数量和繁殖规模进行估算的结果显示,2005~2007年,第一次产卵前中华鲟的资源量分别为235ind.、217ind.和203ind.;第一次产卵后其繁殖群体数量分别为157ind.、157ind.和102ind.;年繁殖规模分别为356万粒、119.6万粒和238.6万粒。对中华鲟的繁殖繁殖群体数量和繁殖规模的变动趋势进行分析,结果为中华鲟的繁殖群体数量在第一次产卵前基本稳定,年际间差异没有统计学意义。繁殖规模逐年呈现急剧性下降趋势(P<0.01)。 2、对其他鱼类的资源丰度评估和时空分布的研究结果为:近三年中华鲟产卵前后其他鱼类个体的平均密度分别 (X±S.E.)为209.48 97.12ind.和 372.09 152.41ind.、227.34 69.95 ind.和 321.41 124.57ind.、 128.56 37.74ind.和 178.43 37.52ind.。该江段的鱼类密度要高于中华鲟产卵前的密度,但是产卵前后其密度差异没有统计学意义(T-检验结果,P>0.05)。 对于目标强度而言,鱼类目标强度呈现非正态分布,其中目标强度为 -60dB~-50dB之间的鱼体(小型鱼体)占 60%以上,目标强度大于-50dB的鱼体(中大型鱼体)不到40%。年际间鱼类大小没有统计学差异(P=0.87)。 通过建立鱼类时空分布的GIS模型对其进行研究的结果为:鱼类的分布有明显的区域差异性,分布主要集中在坝下船闸位置、长航船厂和磷肥厂对岸江段位置、庙咀上下约2km的江段、夷陵长江大桥上下大约1.5km的江段、胭脂坝上下江段等区域。但是在不同年份、不同时期鱼类分布又有其特定的分布形式,定点监测结果表明鱼类分布可能存在昼夜节律现象。在垂直空间上,2005年中华鲟产卵前后其他鱼类距离水面的平均距离分别为14.4m和10.82m,2006年中华鲟产卵前后鱼类分布位置距离水面的平均距离为9.51m和11.23m;2007年中华鲟产卵前后鱼类距离水面的平均距离为12.01m和10.56m,探测的鱼类基本处于水体的中下层,主要分布于5~20m水层。 3、船闸的定点监测结果表明:船闸位置有一定的鱼类在该位置通过,其中上行和下行的都有,上行的数量要大于下行的数量。上行和下行的鱼类的目标强度、游动速率等都没有显著性的差异,即其上行和下行的鱼类种类组成没有差异。即船闸在一定的程度上有一定的过鱼能力。但由于诸多因素的影响,其过鱼的数量所产生的生态学意义很小。
英文摘要: Hydroacoustic method has been applied in marine fisheries and fisheries research for decades and are well established, Which has been used to investigate fish abundances, spatial –temporal distribution and behaviors in the oceans. In the recent years, this technique has been applied in the freshwater and shallow water. In the present thesis, Hydroacoustic surveys in conjunction with GIS modeling have been applied in estimation of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) and other fish species’ abundance, temporal-spatial distribution, in the Gezhouba Dam Reach of Yangtze River, during the Chinese sturgeon spawning seasons. And acoustic surveys had been conduct by the Simrad EY60 split-beam scientific Echo sounder of 200KHz, in two specified periods of each year: pre-spawning and post-spawning of Chinese sturgeon. As for the estimation of Chinese sturgeon spawning stock, it is crucial to distinguishing the Chinese sturgeon echo-signal from other signals, such as bubble, debris, sediments, and other fish species in the echogram of the sonar data. Because of limited technique, in the past we differentiated the echo-signal of Chinese sturgeon from that of other targets, based solely on the echo-shape and echo length, which is too subjective. So the subjective identification methods of species had been improved in this thesis, based on echo-shape, echo length, Target Strength (TS) and tracking of the target in the sonar beam, based on related study and field work experiences. Stepwise discriminant function analysis (Stepwise DFA) was then applied to rectify any inaccurate classification. Stepwise DFA was applied to training a set of 481 tracked single echo detections, which belonging to four classification groups, possible signal of Chinese sturgeon, other fish species, sediments and noise (back reverberation, bubble, debris, etc). The results show that, in all 25 Chinese sturgeon echo-signals were detected in the spawning ground of Gezhouba Dam, in the last 3 years. And the accuracy of identification of Chinese sturgeon is 90.9%. In Steps DFA analysis, 24 variables, out of 67 variables were applied in discrimination and identification. PCA (principle component analysis) combined with DFA analysis was then used to ensure the significance of the 24 variables and detailed the identification pattern. The results indicated that we can discriminate Chinese sturgeon from other fish species and noise using certain descriptors such as the behaviour variable, echo characteristics and acoustic cross-section characteristics. However identification of Chinese sturgeon from sediments is more difficult and needs a total of 24 variables. This is due to the limited knowledge about the acoustic-scattering properties of the substrate regions. Based on identified individuals, 18 of Chinese sturgeon individuals were distributed in Gezhouba Dam and the Miaozui region, with a surface area of about 3.4km2. 7 of the individuals were distributed in Miaozui and the Yanshouba Dam region, with a surface area of about 13km2. As for the vertical distribution, Chinese sturgeon tend to living in the depth of 10~20m, with an average depth of 17.5m, and the sturgeon preferred to inhabit near the bottom. From 2005 to 2007, the spawning stock of Chinese sturgeon is 257ind., 237ind. and 203ind. respectively, No significant difference in annual amounts were observed in the those years. And in the recent three years, the eatimated laying is 3560,000 grains、1196,000 grains and 238,6000 grains respectively. By Comparing with foregone data, the reproduction size decrease sharply in the recent ten years, The drop tendency is extremely remarkable (p<0.01). While studying the Chinese sturgeon, We also studied the abundance and temporal-spatial distribution of other fish species, in pre-spawning and post-spawning periods of Chinese sturgeon. As for their abundance, in pre-spawning period, the mean numeric density of fish (X±S.E.) is 209.48 97.12ind., 227.34 69.95 ind., 128.56 37.74ind. respectively. And in post-spawning periods, the mean numeric density (X±S.E.) is 372.09 152.41ind., 321.41 124.57ind.and 178.43 37.52ind. respectively. Therefore, in the post-spawning periods, the fish numeric density is higher than that of Pre-spawning period. However, the difference is not significant (P>0.05), according to student’s T-test. For the fish size, we had detected more than 4,000 individuals in recent three years. More than 60% individuals’ TS are an interval of -60dB and -50dB, less than 40% individuals’ target strength are more than -50dB. So in this area, most of fish individuals are small fish, medium fish is less, large fish and extra-large fish is rare, based on the empirical measures of target strength. And nonparamtric tests result show that the fish size has no significant difference in recent 3 years (P=0.87). In conjunction with the GIS modeling (Geographic Information System), the fish distribution pattern were also revealed in the thesis. As for the fish vertical distribution, the detected fish are distributed in a depth of 5~20m, and most of them aggregating near the bottom. As for the fish horizontal distribution and variation, the result show that the fish tend to located in some specifical region, such as just downstream the strobe, in the front of the Yichang dockyard site and in the front of the medical factory site, near the Yilin bridge and about the Yanshouba Dam Reach. But the distribution varied in the different period, which might be in relation to behavior of Chinese sturgeon spawning.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12314
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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基于水声学的长江葛洲坝江段鱼类时空分布研究及GIS建模.陶江平[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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