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题名: 异育银鲫促摄食物质研究
作者: 赵红月
答辩日期: 2007-06-15
导师: 解绶启 ; 薛敏
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 促摄食物质 ; 氨基酸 ; 嗅觉 ; 味觉 ; 行为学 ; 适应 ; 异育银鲫
其他题名: Studies on feeding stimulants for gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)
摘要: 本文采用了嗅觉嗅上皮水下嗅电位(EOG)法、味觉面神经记录法、行为学撞球法和摄食生长法四种方法系统的研究了氨基酸、有机酸、核苷等刺激物对异育银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)电生理和摄食行为的影响。实验首先研究了22 种刺激物在10-8g/l 到10-2g/l 对异育银鲫嗅觉的刺激反应,然后研究了这些刺激物在10-8mol/l 到10-2mol/l 引起的味觉刺激反应,从而选出反应较强刺激物种类和刺激浓度进行行为学实验。运用行为学实验标准评定刺激物的反应,找出在行为学实验中反应最强的物质后应用到廉价配合饲料中研究鱼类促摄食物质的 应性。 实验结果主要包括: 1、异育银鲫对刺激物的嗅觉和味觉反应波为快速适应的瞬时双相波。嗅觉反应波随刺激物浓度的升高到一定浓度具有波形翻转现象,不同刺激物出现翻转波时的浓度不同。苯丙氨酸、脯氨酸和苏氨酸只具有一种类型的反应波。 2、随刺激物浓度的升高嗅味觉电生理反应幅值呈指数上升趋势。肌苷、次黄嘌呤和三甲胺盐酸盐对异育银鲫的嗅觉EOG 反应不随浓度变化而变化。刺激物脯氨酸不引起异育银鲫味觉反应。 3、嗅觉反应的反应持续时间随浓度升高呈指数上升趋势,味觉反应不具有这种趋势。脯氨酸、丙氨酸、缬氨酸、苏氨酸、精氨酸和次黄嘌呤的嗅觉反应持 续时间不存在这种趋势。 4、嗅觉反应阈值集中在10-6g/l 和10-5g/l,味觉反应阈值集中在10-6mol/l 和10-5mol/l。苏氨酸、肌苷、甜菜碱、组氨酸、缬氨酸、天冬氨酸、脯氨酸、牛磺 酸和乳酸八种刺激物的嗅觉反应没有达到饱和,多数味觉刺激物的反应没有达到饱和。反应达到刺激物的饱和浓度为10-3g/l 和10-3mol/l。 5、嗅味觉反应是明显的浓度依赖反应。不同刺激浓度反应强度排列顺序不同。嗅觉反应在各个浓度均较强的刺激物为天冬氨酸、乳酸、精氨酸、赖氨酸、丙氨酸和合成混合物,味觉反应在各个浓度均较强的是赖氨酸、甘氨酸、乳酸。 6、行为学实验研究发现天冬氨酸反应最强,次之为精氨酸、苏氨酸,其他刺激物的作用较弱。多数刺激物没有反应。乳酸对较大规格(46.9±11.2g)的鱼具有明显的抑制作用,对小规格(6.9±0.3g)的鱼具有一定的摄食促进作用。 7、混合刺激物的反应比较发现天冬氨酸+苏氨酸(26:63)万分之一的添加量和天冬氨酸+苏氨酸+DMPT(26:63:10)万分之一的添加量作用效果最好。 8、摄食生长实验发现添加促摄食物质能提高异育银鲫摄食率。天冬氨酸+苏氨酸+DMPT(26:63:10)万分之一的添加量组在最初2 周能够明显提高摄食率22%。连续投喂促摄食物质饲料4 周,摄食促摄食物质和摄食基础料的异育银鲫摄食率不存在显著性差异。 9、变换促摄食物质能够显著影响鱼类的摄食率。饲料中添加万分之一天冬氨酸+苏氨酸+DMPT(26:63:10)能够显著提高鱼类的摄食率,将此饲料变为其它饲料时摄食率显著下降。变换促摄食物质后第二天异育银鲫的摄食率变化达到稳定水平。 10、不同的促摄食物质使用顺序对实验周期内总特定生长率、总摄食率、鱼 体蛋白含量、鱼体脂肪含量和灰分没有显著影响,但对鱼体能量具有一定的影响。 运用电生理法、行为学法和摄食生长法结合能够有效地筛选促摄食物质,添加促摄食物质能够显著提高异育银鲫的摄食率,但是鱼类在长期养殖过程中会出 现适应反应。
英文摘要: Different kinds of methods including electro-olfactogram (EOG), gustatory facial nerves recording, behavioral methods (biting-balls), feeding trial were used for the evaluation of feeding stimulants for gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and other potential stimulants were tested. Electro-olfactogram responses of 22 stimuli at the concentrations of 10-8g/l to 10-2g/l and gustatory facial nerves responses of 22 stimuli at the concentrations of 10-8mol/l to 10-2mol/l were investigated. The potential feeding stimulants were then evaluated by behavioral methods. The adaptation of fish to feeding stimulants was then investigated. The main results are shown as the following. 1. Waveforms of olfactory and gustatory electrophysiological responses to different feeding stimuli were transient, rapidly adaptive, biphasic discharges. Olfactory waveforms reversed at certain centrations and reversal waves of different stimuli appeared at different centrations. Phenylalanine, proline, threonine only obtained one type of waves. 2. Magnitudes of olfactory and gustatory responses increased exponentially with the increase in stimuli concentrations. Magnitudes of the responses to inosine, hypoxanthine and trimethylamine hydrochloride showed no significant variation with the increase in stimuli concentrations. Different kinds of methods including electro-olfactogram (EOG), gustatory facial nerves recording, behavioral methods (biting-balls), feeding trial were used for the evaluation of feeding stimulants for gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and other potential stimulants were tested. Electro-olfactogram responses of 22 stimuli at the concentrations of 10-8g/l to 10-2g/l and gustatory facial nerves responses of 22 stimuli at the concentrations of 10-8mol/l to 10-2mol/l were investigated. The potential feeding stimulants were then evaluated by behavioral methods. The adaptation of fish to feeding stimulants was then investigated. The main results are shown as the following. 1. Waveforms of olfactory and gustatory electrophysiological responses to different feeding stimuli were transient, rapidly adaptive, biphasic discharges. Olfactory waveforms reversed at certain concentrations and reversal waves of different stimuli appeared at different concentrations. Phenylalanine, proline, threonine only obtained one type of waves. 2. Magnitudes of olfactory and gustatory responses increased exponentially with the increase in stimuli concentrations. Magnitudes of the responses to inosine, hypoxanthine and trimethylamine hydrochloride showed no significant variation with the increase in stimuli concentrations. XIV 3. Durations of olfactory response increased with the increase in stimuli concentrations. No changes were found in gustatory response durations. Response durations of proline, alanine, valine, threonine, argnine and hypoxanthine showed no significant difference at different concentrations. 4. Thresholds of olfactory responses were from 10-6g/l to 10-5g/l while those of guastatory responses were from 10-6mol/l to 10-5mol/l. Responses of threonine, inosine, betaine, histidine, valine, asparagic acid, proline, taurine, lactic acid did not show the satiation in EOG responses. No satiation was found in gustatory responses to most of stimuli. Satiation concentrations were 10-3g/l in olfactory response and 10-3mol/l in gustatory response, respectively. 5. Electrophysiological responses of olfaction and gustation were dose-depended. Amplitudes of different stimuli showed different orders at different concentrations. The most potential olfactory stimulants were lactic acid, asparagic acid, arginine, lysine, alanine and synthetic mixture while gustatory stimulants were lysine, glycine and lactic acid. 6. The best stimulant in behavioral trials was asparagic acid, then arginine and threonine. Less stimulative effect were showed in other stimuli. Most of stimuli were ineffective on behavioral response of gibel carp. Lactic acid was repellent for big fish (46.9±11.2g), but stimulant for small fish (6.9±0.3g). 7. The most effective compound were 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine (26:63) or 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine+DMPT(26:63:10). 8. Feeding stimulants could increase feeding rate of gibel carp during feeding trial. 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine+DMPT(26:63:10) could increased feeding rate by 22% in first 2 weeks. No significant difference of feeding rates between test diet and the control diet was observed in 4 weeks. 9. Changing feeding stimulants could significantly affect fish feeding rate. Feeding rate could be significantly increased by the inclusion of 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine+DMPT (26:63:10) in diet while reduced when it was replaced by other stimulants. Feeding rate stabilized next day after changing diet. 10. Total specific growth rate, feeding rate and body dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, ash were not affected by the changing of different feeding stimulants while fish gross energy were significantly affected. In conclusion, it is effective to screen feeding stimulants by electrophysiological, behavioral methods and feeding trial. Feeding stimulants can significantly increase feeding rate of gibel carp. However, fish could adapt to the diet after a long-term rearing. 4. Thresholds of olfactory responses were from 10-6g/l to 10-5g/l while those of guastatory responses were from 10-6mol/l to 10-5mol/l. Responses of threonine, inosine, betaine, histidine, valine, asparagic acid, proline, taurine, lactic acid did not show the satiation in EOG responses. No satiation was found in gustatory responses to most of stimuli. Satiation concentrations were 10-3g/l in olfactory response and 10-3mol/l in gustatory response, respectively. 5. Electrophysiological responses of olfaction and gustation were dose-depended. Amplitudes of different stimuli showed different orders at different concentrations. The most potential olfactory stimulants were lactic acid, asparagic acid, arginine, lysine, alanine and synthetic mixture while gustatory stimulants were lysine, glycine and lactic acid. 6. The best stimulant in behavioral trials was asparagic acid, then arginine and threonine. Less stimulative effect were showed in other stimuli. Most of stimuli were ineffective on behavioral response of gibel carp. Lactic acid was repellent for big fish (46.9±11.2g), but stimulant for small fish (6.9±0.3g). 7. The most effective compound were 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine (26:63)or 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine+DMPT(26:63:10). 8. Feeding stimulants could increase feeding rate of gibel carp during feeding trial. 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine+DMPT(26:63:10) could increased feeding rate by 22% in first 2 weeks. No significant difference of feeding rates between test diet and the control diet was observed in 4 weeks. 9. Changing feeding stimulants could significantly affect fish feeding rate. Feeding rate could be significantly increased by the inclusion of 10-4 g/kg asparagic acid+threonine+DMPT (26:63:10) in diet while reduced when it was replaced by other stimulants. Feeding rate stabilized next day after changing diet. 10. Total specific growth rate, feeding rate and body dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, ash were not affected by the changing of different feeding stimulants while fish gross energy were significantly affected. In conclusion, it is effective to screen feeding stimulants by electrophysiological,behavioral methods and feeding trial. Feeding stimulants can significantly increase feeding rate of gibel carp. However, fish could adapt to the diet after a long-term rearing.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12246
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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异育银鲫促摄食物质研究.赵红月[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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