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题名: 长江中下游浅水湖泊鳜人工放流的效果评价及鳜遗传多样性的研究
作者: 张彬
答辩日期: 2007-06-14
导师: 李钟杰
专业: 水生生物学
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: ; 长江中下游浅水湖泊 ; 人工放流 ; 遗传多样性
其他题名: Effects of Stocking Enhancement and Genetic Diversity of Mandarin Fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) in Shallow Lakes along the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River
摘要: 食鱼性鱼类的放养,如鳜 Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) 等,是近年来长江中下游地区浅水湖泊新兴的人工放养增殖对象。它是典型食鱼性凶猛鱼类,在湖泊生态系统中属顶级消费者,在湖泊生态系统中通过“下行生态效应”发挥重要作用。 本研究中,我们选取鳜作为研究对象,选取梁子湖水系的牛山湖、牛山湖西汊及宁港大汊水域作为研究地点,通过标记回捕及湖泊渔获调查方法系统的评价不同渔业生产管理模式下大规模人工放流鳜的增殖效果;同时采取分子生态学方法,筛选了有效的微卫星标记,研究了目前长江中下游湖泊鳜遗传多样性水平并初步探讨了长期大规模鳜人工放流增殖活动对鳜种群遗传多样性的影响,取得如下主要结果与结论: 1. 根据2003年5月至2005年3月三水域取得的 1873 尾鳜标本进行了鳜种群生态学研究。利用鳞片及鳃盖骨鉴定年龄,鳜年轮形成的时间为 4~6 月。三水域的体长-体重关系无显著差异;估算了三水域鳜种群的生长方程参数(L∞、W∞、k 和 t0);牛山湖、牛山湖西汊及宁港大汊鳜生长拐点年龄分别为8.0 龄、6.6 龄以及6.8 龄;估算了三水域鳜种群的年总死亡率、自然死亡率及捕捞死亡率。 2. 通过短期(28天)及长期(305天)的生长比较实验发现,标志鳜稚鱼的背部肌肉、腹部肌肉及尾柄肌肉都可以作为微型金属标(CWT)标志的有效位置。标志鳜的累积死亡率与空白对照无显著差别;标志鳜的生长同空白对照相比无显著差别;三个标志位置的 CWT 标志保存率无显著差别。微型金属标标志鱼类,如果标志位置合适,只在标志后最初很短时期内出现掉标情况,如需准确评估微型金属标的标志效果,只需进行短期 14~28 天的合理实验即可。从标志操作的简便和标志速度上考虑,鳜稚鱼的背部肌肉是CWT标志鳜稚鱼的最佳位置。在鳜稚鱼的背部肌肉标志微型金属标,鳜稚鱼 1~333 天的累积死亡率是 9.3%,标志保存率为 97.9%。微型金属标标志鳜背部肌肉可以大规模用以鳜稚鱼标志,用以研究鳜稚鱼的放流回捕效果,其标志鳜放流后校正系数为 88.80%。 3. 比较研究了不同养殖密度及摄食量对鳜稚鱼生长的影响。结果表明摄食量和养殖密度对稚鳜生长均具有显著影响:随着摄食量的增大,特定生长率随之减速增长,而其生长效率则随着摄食量增大呈直线形下降变化;随着养殖密度的增大,特定生长率、生长效率都呈减速下降趋势;养殖密度的增大,稚鳜生长离散呈抛物线形变化,而摄食量对生长离散没有显著影响;实验条件下 28 天内鳜稚鱼的维持摄食量为0.06(g/日),为其体重的4.4%;稚鳜的最适摄食量为0.188(g/日),为其体重的13.8%。 4. 2003年5月至2005年2月,比较研究了三水域不同渔业生产管理模式下鳜稚鱼放流增殖效果。标志鳜的捕获次数与捕获距离成反比,在标志放流后的 20 个月内,标志鳜的最远移动距离为3000米。牛山湖回捕鳜与天然鳜的生长无显著性差异(F1,966=62.3, p=0.31)。三水域回捕鳜生长存在显著差异,即牛山湖西汊鳜的生长快于宁港大汊,宁港水域鳜的生长快于牛山湖水域。 5. 三水域放流鳜的回捕率差异较大,牛山湖西汊第一年的回捕率为 11.4%,第二年的回捕率高达 78.5%,两年的总回捕率为 80.9%;牛山湖第一年的回捕率为 16.5%,第二年的回捕率为 44.7%,两年的总回捕率为 53.9%;宁港大汊第一年的回捕率为 2.8%,第二年的回捕率为 28.3%,两年的总回捕率为 30.2%。三个水域中,牛山湖西汊的放流效益最高,投入产出比为 1:9.81,而牛山湖和宁港大汊放流效益分别为1:4.38和1:2.90。 6. 首次利用高效的构建基因组富集文库筛选微卫星的方法(FIASCO)分离出鳜的18个多态微卫星标记,并利用其中11个标记对长江中下游湖泊的11个鳜群体进行了遗传多样性研究。结果表明,长江中下游湖泊的鳜群体可能在近期经历“瓶颈效应”(Bottleneck Effect),遗传多样性相对较低,杂和体严重过度。不同水域的鳜群体间无显著的遗传分化,没有形成地理分隔。 7. 牛山湖水域鳜放养种群经过十余年的高强度人工放养后,鳜群体遗传多样性同邻近水域相比无明显下降,主要与牛山湖鳜人工繁殖放养模式有关。牛山湖鳜苗种场采取少量保种,大量亲本从当年牛山湖渔场渔获物中选取,每年人工繁殖结束后,至少淘汰一半数量以上亲本的人工繁殖策略是避免鳜群体遗传多样性降低的有效方式。
英文摘要: There have been growing interests and practices in artificial release of piscivorous species in lakes along the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Stocking of piscivorous fishes has been proposed as a strategy to improve water quality based on the principle of trophic-cascading effects. Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) is an important native species in most freshwaters in China. Artificial release of this fish as a solution to the conflict between fishery development and water quality conservation in lakes for its high market value and positive effects in lake ecology system. In this study, the effects of stock enhancement and genetic diversity of mandarin fish in shallow lakes along the lower and middle reaches of the Yangtze River were carried out. During the years 2003-2005, quantitative and qualitative investigations were conducted on Niushan Lake, Western Embayment of Niushan Lake and Ninggang Embayment of Liangzi Lake. Assessments of mandarin fish artificial releasing in three lakes with different patterns of fishery management were carried out by methods of mark-recapture and fishery investigation. Effective molecular marker was exploited to reveal the genetic diversity among mandarin fish populations along the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Conclusions from the studies as follows: 1. The population ecology of mandarin fish was studied based on 1873 specimens taken from Niushan Lake, Western Embayment of Niushan Lake and Ninggang Embayment of Liangzi Lake from April 2003 to February 2005. The scales and operculums of mandarin fish were used for age determining and growth back-calculating. The relationship between body weight and body total length of mandarin fish were expressed as lnW=a+blnTL and there was high significant difference (F2,584=106.92, p<0.001) between mandarin fish population from three lakes. The parameters (L∞、W∞、k 和 t0) of von Bertanlanffy growth equations were estimated for mandarin fish of three lakes. According to the growth equations, the inflexion points of mandarin fish were 8.0, 6.6 and 6.8 for three lakes separately. Total morality rate, natural morality rate and fishing mortality rate of three populations were estimated respectively. 2. CWT was injected into juvenile mandarin fish body at three placements: dorsal, abdomen and caudal musculature. After 28 days and 305 days experiment of injection, there was no significant different effect on survival rate, growth and tag retention between all treatments. CWT is suitable for juvenile mandarin fish tagging, and dorsal, abdomen and caudal musculatures are all proper tagging placements. Based on the high survival rate, high tag retention and operational facility, the dorsal musculature was the prior suitable site in three locations for the injection for juvenile mandarin fish. The results indicated that the accumulative mortality rate of mandarin fish which injected the dorsal musculature was 9.3% in 28 days and 100% from the 29 day to 333 days (305 days). The tag retention was 97.9% in 28 days and 100% in 305 days. These results confirm that injection of CWT in the dorsal musculature is a reliable method for juveniles used for large size releasing and mark-recapture research in the future. 3. We carried an experiment to find the optimum food take and stocking density in the growth of juvenile mandarin fish. The results showed that there were significant relationships between food intake, stocking density and the growth of juvenile mandarin fish. Their specific growth rates (SGR) increased with the increase of food intake and the speed of SGR was daily gradually decreased; The growth efficiency (GE) were decreased with the increase of food intake; there was a significant linear relationship between GE and food intake; SGR and GE were decreased with the increase of stocking density and the decreasing speed of SGR and GE were daily decreased; There was a significant relationship between growth variation (SV) and stocking density. In the present study, the maintain food intake of juvenile mandarin fish was 0.06 g/day and the proportion of maintain food intake/body weight was 4.4%. The optimal food intake was 0.188 g/day and its proportion was 13.8%. 4. During May 2003 to February 2005, we evaluated the effects of juvenile mandarin fish stocking with different patterns of fishery management in three lakes. There was negative linear relationship between recaptured distance and recaptured amount, the longest distance of releasing mandarin fish movement was 3000 meters. There was no significant (F1,966=62.3, p=0.31) difference with growth between recaptured and natural mandarin fish in Niushan Lake. The growth speed of stocked mandarin fish was significant variability in three lakes. The growth speed of mandarin fish in Western Embayment of Niushan Lake was higher than other lakes and the growth speed of mandarin fish in Niushan Lake was lowest in three lakes. 5. There was great variety in recapture-rate of stocking mandarin fish in three lakes. The recapture-rate of mandarin fish in Western Embayment of Niushan Lake was 11.4% in 2003, 78.5% in 2004 and its total recapture-rate was 80.9%. The recapture-rate of Niushan Lake and Ninggang Embayment of Liangze Lake were lower than Western Embayment of Niushan Lake. The highest recapture-rate of mandarin fish in 2003 was occurred in Niushan Lake (16.5%). The total recapture-rates of mandarin fish in Niushan Lake and Ninggang Embayment of Liangzi Lake were 53.9% and 30.2% respectively. The coefficient in Input-Output of mandarin fish stocking in Western Embayment of Niushan Lake was highest than other lakes, it were 1:9.81, 1:4.38 and 1:2.90 in Western Embayment of Niushan Lake, Niushan Lake and Ninggang Embayment of Liangzi Lake respectively. 6. 18 polymorphic microsatellites from enriched-genomic library of mandarin fish were firstly isolated and characterized using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO) protocol. Genetic diversity analysis of 11 populations of mandarin fish from shallow lakes along the middle reach of the Yangtze River was performed using 11 microsatellite loci. The results revealed that mandarin fish which may be suffered from bottleneck in the history showed great excess of heterozygote, lower genetic diversity, non-significant genetic differentiation among populations and non-significant geographical separation. 7. There was not significantly genetic differentiation between populations of Liangzi Lake, Dongting Lake, Honghu Lake and stocking population of Niushan Lake after more than a decade of intense stocking. This phenomenon was highly relative to the pattern of artificial propagation in Niushan Lakes. The numbers of the parents as broodstock were altered every year and at least half of parents were captured from Niushan Lake during spawn season. The breeding program of Niushan Lake avoided the loss of genetic diversity in stocking population.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12238
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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长江中下游浅水湖泊鳜人工放流的效果评价及鳜遗传多样性的研究.张彬[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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