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题名: 香溪河水系浮游动物生态学研究
作者: 周淑婵
答辩日期: 2007-06-13
导师: 刘建康 ; 蔡庆华
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 香溪河 ; 静水生境 ; 流水生境 ; 浮游动物 ; 轮虫 ; 长江三峡水库 ; 水电站
其他题名: The ecological studies of zooplankton in Xiangxi River system
摘要: 香溪河是直接汇入长江北岸、位于湖北境内的一条重要的支流,由于长江三峡水库的蓄水,其下游水深从20 m涨到70 m左右,流速也从0.43 - 0.92 m/s降到0.0020 - 0.0041 m/s,下游河段成为了一个静水区,这个区域就是香溪河库湾。本论文以浮游动物为对象,研究大型水利工程对其群落结构、时空分布、昼夜迁移,以及浮游动物对藻类水华暴发的响应。在香溪河上游河流中,我们对河流浮游动物做了系统的生态学研究,最后分别就小型和大型水电站修建对河流浮游动物影响做了初步探讨。主要结果如下: 1.于2003年7月至2005年6月,在香溪河库湾展开了为期2周年的调查与研究。结果表明:共发现轮虫81种,分属于15个科29属。优势种有14种:广生多肢轮虫(Polyarthra vulgaris)、螺形龟甲轮虫(Keratella cochlearis)、颤动疣毛轮虫(Synchaeta tremula)、尖尾疣毛轮虫(Synchaeta stylata)、暗小异尾轮虫(Trichocerca pusilla)、萼花臂尾轮虫(Brachionus calyciflorus)、独角聚花轮虫(Conochilus unicornis)、冠饰异尾轮虫(Trichocerca lophoessa)、卵形无柄轮虫(Ascomorpha ovalis)、角突臂尾轮虫(Brachionus angularis)、曲腿龟甲轮虫(Keratella valga)、截头皱甲轮虫(Ploesoma truncatum)、裂痕龟纹轮虫(Anuraeopsis fissa)和剪形臂尾轮虫(Brachionus forficula forficula),其中第一周年优势种有11种,第二周年优势种有10种,两周年共有优势种为4种。第一周年与第二周年的轮虫群落相似指数很低,而第二周年相邻月份相似指数、物种丰富度及多样性指数整体上高于第一周年,这表明库湾轮虫群落处于逐步稳定过程。轮虫空间分布异质性显著,香溪河库湾过渡区物种丰富度、多样性指数及密度最高,河流区轮虫物种丰富度、多样性指数及密度最低;除河流区外,轮虫密度沿着水流方向呈下降趋势。同一断面不同样点(左岸、中间和右岸)轮虫物种丰富度、多样性指数等差异不显著。 2.于2004年7月、10月和2005年1月、4月在香溪河库湾对轮虫群落进行了昼夜垂直迁移及分布研究。结果表明:水温、pH、电导率和浮游植物密度与轮虫垂直分布关系密切;而溶解氧与轮虫垂直分布关系不显著。不同季节轮虫种类组成、密度变动显著,但是它们的垂直分布模式是相似的:主要分布在特定的水层-上层。不同季节轮虫种类没有发生昼夜垂直迁移现象,但是夏季广生多肢轮虫进行了昼夜垂直迁移。 3.香溪河库湾逐月常规监测结果表明:轮虫群落时间动态显著,尤其是优势种的变动能够很好地解释群落时间演替。但是由于轮虫繁殖周期短,月采样频率不能很好地监测其群落季节变动规律。同时,香溪河库湾经常暴发藻类水华,轮虫是藻类的主要牧食者。在藻类水华过程中,它们是怎么演替的呢?这是个有趣的话题。因此,为探讨水华暴发过程中轮虫种群动态,于2005年2月22日~4月28日在香溪河库湾官庄坪站开展了逐日分层监测。结果表明:观测期间水温、pH等理化因子在水柱中是均匀分布的;浮游植物叶绿素a和轮虫等在水柱中是聚集分布的:主要分布在上层。在采样初期浮游动物以轮虫群落为主,3月份水华的暴发促进轮虫种类数、密度均有显著升高。四月份由于藻类种类组成发生更替-从小型轮虫可摄食的种类为优势变为大型轮虫不可摄食的种类为优势;此外,甲壳动物在水中的比重增多,轮虫的饵料竞争者和捕食者也增多,因此4月份轮虫在水体中的密度下降。 4.于2006年2月至2007年1月对香溪河上游河流态浮游动物进行了系统的观察。结果表明:共鉴定出浮游动物69个分类单元,分属于23个科、32个属,轮虫群落是主要的类群,优势种类有:爱德里亚狭甲轮虫(Colurella colurus)、钩状狭甲轮虫(Colurella uncinata)、广生多肢轮虫(Polyarthra vulgaris)、红旋眼轮虫(Phiodina erythrophthalma)、懒轮虫(Rotaria tardigrada)、螺形龟甲轮虫(Keratella cochlearis);而枝角类优势种为:长额象鼻溞(Bosmina longirostris),桡足类则以剑水蚤(Cyclopidae)和无节幼体(nauplius)为主。香溪河上游浮游动物密度普遍较低,最大值仅为60 ind. /L, 平均为10 ind. /L,远远小于香溪河库湾浮游动物密度。不同样点间浮游动物种类数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、密度差异均显著(P<0.05);浮游动物时间动态也显著(P<0.05)。 5.香溪河水资源丰富,在该河上建有许多小型水电站。为观测小型水电站对河流浮游动物分布的影响,于2005年11月至2006年6月,在香溪河上选取一段受电站干扰的河段进行河流浮游动物逐月采样。结果表明:此段河流浮游动物物种丰富,有56个分类单元,但密度较低;其季节演替显著。小水电站的建设对河流浮游动物产生了显著的影响。小水电站取水坝的建设改变了浮游动物的种类组成及密度。水电站出水口对浮游动物的影响相对较小。在长期干旱或者枯水季节,水电站对浮游动物影响尤为显著。而大雨事件或者适当保持河道连通则能降低这种影响。 6.由于大型水电站的修建,生境从有流速的河流生境转变成几乎没有流速的静水生境。生境的改变引起了浮游植物叶绿素a、浮游动物种类分布、密度、多样性指数等发生了显著的改变:如浮游植物叶绿素a 的含量在两静水样点中、三流水样点中差异不显著,但是静水与流水样点间差异显著;某些浮游动物种类只出现在静水样点中(如尖尾疣毛轮虫、截头皱甲轮虫等)而某些种类只出现于流水样点中(如尖角腔轮虫、囊形腔轮虫等);浮游动物密度、多样性指数在两静水样点中、三流水样点中差异不显著;但是静水与流水样点间差异显著;在两静水样点中、三流水样点中浮游动物相似性指数较大,但静水与流水样点间相似性指数极低。这些结果均表明了大型水电站的修建对河流浮游生物产生了显著的影响。
英文摘要: Since the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir – a world-famous hydroelectric project, water depth in the outlet of Xiangxi River has increased from about 20 m to 70 m, water current velocity has decreased from 0.43-0.92 m/s to 0.0020-0.0041 m/s, and the lower reach of this river has been in lentic condition, which now is called as Xiangxi Bay. In this Bay I used zooplankton as bioindicator to explore the impact of large-scale hydraulic engineering (Three Gorges Reservoir) on aquatic environment, in terms of zooplankton species composition, their temporal and spatial distribution, diel vertical distribution and migration and their response to phytoplankton bloom. As the upstream of this river is still a lotic habitat, I also carried out the ecological research of riverine zooplankton. The followings are the main results obtained from this research. 1. From July, 2003 to June, 2005, investigations of temporal and spatial distributions of rotifer species were carried out in Xiangxi Bay. Here, 13 sampling sites (including two transects) were selected. 81 rotifer species were recorded, belonging to 15 families and 29 genera. There were 14 dominant species, which were Polyarthra vulgaris, Keratella cochlearis, Keratella valga, Synchaeta tremula, Synchaeta stylata, Trichocerca lophoessa, Trichocerca pusilla, Brachionus angularis, Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus forficula forficula, Ascomorpha ovalis, Conochilus unicornis, Ploesoma truncatum and Anuraeopsis fissa. During the first year of impoundment, rotifer community was dominated by ten species, and one year later it was dominated by eight species; the co-dominant species between the two years were only four. Percent similarity index (PSC) of the same months and the same sites between the two years were low; but PSC of the adjacent months in the second year were higher than those in the first year. This indicated that during the study period rotifer community in Xiangxi Bay was dissimilar, and the community in the second year was more stable and more similar than that in the first year. In spatial distribution, rotifer exhibited patchiness distribution. Significant heterogeneity along the longitudinal axis was observed. However, there was no transverse heterogeneity of rotifer community in Xiangxi Bay. PSC, density and Shannon-Wiener index of rotifers in each transect (left, middle and right) were not statistically different. 2. I investigated the diel vertical migrations (DVM) and distributions of rotifers in summer and autumn of 2004, in winter and spring of 2005, in Xiangxi Bay. Water temperature, pH, conductivity, and phytoplankton were closely related to rotifer vertical distribution, while dissolved oxygen had no relationship with the vertical distribution of rotifers. The species composition and population density of rotifers changed significantly between seasons. However, rotifer vertical distributions among seasons were similar. They aggregated at specific depths in the water column. All the rotifer species inhabited the upper strata (0.5-5 m). Generally, the rotifers did not display DVM except for Polyarthra vulgaris (in summer), which performed reverse migration. The reason that rotifers did not perform DVM may be explained by high density of food resources and the low abundance of competitors and predators at the upper strata. 3. Monthly investigation of rotifers indicated that their temporal dynamics were significant in Xiangxi Bay; and the succession of dominant species was the main cause. Inasmuch as the reproductive time of rotifers is very short (about several days) the monthly interval of sampling frequence was too crude to detect the mechanism of temporal dynamics. And at the same period of time, in Xiangxi Bay severe phytoplankton bloom occurred in spring. Rotifers are the main grazer of phytoplankton. Therefore, from 22 February to 28 April, 2005, I made a daily vertical investigation of rotifers in Xiangxi Bay. The results indicated that the vertical distributions of environment were even; there was less change in the temporal dynamics. However, the vertical distributions of phytoplankton (Chl a) and rotifers were aggregated in the special strata. During the initial period of the sampling date rotifer donimated the zooplankton community and rotifer density increased sharply after the bloom of phytoplankton. In April dominant species of phytoplankton changed from small size (thus edible to rotifers) to large size (thus inconsumable to rotifers) and large crustaceans increased significantly in the water column, both of factors causing the decrease of rotifer proportion. 4. From February 2006 to January 2007, monthly samples were taken in the upstream Xiangxi River (lotic habitat). The results indicated that rotifers dominated the zooplankton community. The dominant species of rotifers were Colurella colurus, Colurella uncinata, Polyarthra vulgaris, Phiodina erythrophthalma, Rotaria tardigrada and Keratella cochlearis. The dominant species of cladoceran was Bosmina longirostris. The dominant taxa of copepod were Cyclopidae and various nauplia. The density of zooplankton in the upstream Xiangxi River was low, the max value was about 60 ind. /L and the mean value was about 10 ind. /L, which was far lower than that in the Xiangxi Bay. The spatial distributions of richness, Shannon-Wiener index and densities of zooplankton were significant and their temporal dynamics were also significant. Generally, the downstream had more zooplankton than the upstream because of having more niches. 5. Xiangxi River is abundant in water resource. Many small hydropower plants were built along its reach. From November 2005 to June 2006, monthly sampling were made in a special reach (of Xiangxi River) affected by a small hydropower plant. The results of our study indicate that: 1) zooplankton richness in Xiangxi River was high (about 56 taxa), but the density is low; the temporal dynamics of zooplankton were significant. 2) the existence of the intake dam (of the plant) had significant effect on zooplankton community. The outlet (of the plant) also had significant effect on zooplankton but to a less extent. In long time drought or dry season the effect of the plant was more intense. But the downfall or the connectivity of channel can attenuate the effect of the plant. Zooplankton in Xiangxi River can reflect the impact of a small in-channel dam quickly. It was a good indicator of the effect of small dam on aquatic organism. 6. Although it is well recognized that huge impounded reservoir had impact on riverine zooplankton, the extent of this impact is still not well known. Quantitative study about the impact of huge impounded reservoir on riverine zooplankton is still scarce. In this dissertation I quantificationally examined the impact of impounded reservoir on aquatic environment by the bioindicator of zooplankton and contrasted the difference of zooplankton between lentic habitat and lotic habitat. The results indicated that some lotic species such as Lecane hamata and L. bulla disappeared but the lentic species for instance Synchaeta stylata and Ploesoma truncatum arosed because of the impoudment of the reservoir. There was significant difference on zooplankton richness, PSC similarity, Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and density between the lotic zone and the lentic zone. Evidentally a huge impounded project has severe impact on aquatic environment and zooplankton.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12224
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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香溪河水系浮游动物生态学研究.周淑婵[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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