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题名: 长臀鮠属与鲚属的物种有效性分析及系统学研究
作者: 刘彩霞
答辩日期: 2007-06-19
导师: 何舜平
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 长臀鮠属 ; 鲚属 ; 多变量形态度量 ; 主成分分析 ; 细胞色素b基因 ; 系统发育 ; 种群遗传多样性 ; 物种有效性
其他题名: Studies on Systematics of Some Endangered Commercial Fishes in China
摘要: 本研究选择了中国易危经济鱼类的代表性种类——长臀鮠属、鲚属为研究对象开展鱼类系统学研究。针对长臀鮠属和鲚属分别采用形态度量学方法和分子生物学技术研究形态变异和物种分化,确立物种的有效性,为其生物多样性保护研究提供依据。论文主要分为两个部分: 1. 长臀鮠属隶属于鲇形目长臀鮠科是东亚特有种类,只分布于我国南部广东、广西、云南、海南诸水系及越南红水河水系。运用多变量形态度量学方法,研究长臀鮠属鱼类的形态差异,对分类学上存在争议的长臀鮠属3个物种66个个体43个形态度量性状进行了主成分分析。根据主成分分析的结果评价该属物种有效性。结果表明:目前分类识别的3个物种长臀鮠(Cranoglanis bouderius)、海南长臀鮠(C. multiraditus)和红河长臀鮠(C. henrici)在形态上并无明显的区别。根据命名法规,长臀鮠属鱼类只有一个有效种,即长臀鮠(Cranoglanis bouderius)。 2. 鲚属隶属于鲱形目鳀科,是西太平洋沿岸栖息的小型鱼类。近年来属内物种处于濒危状态。以鳀科鳀属鳀(Engraulis japonicus)、欧洲鳀(E. encrasicolus)为外类群,选择Cytb基因为遗传标记,运用分子系统学方法对中国鲚属七丝鲚(Coilia grayii)、凤鲚(C. mystus)、短颌鲚(C. brachygnathus)和刀鲚(C. ectenes)4种鱼类147尾样本进行系统发生和物种的种群进化研究,为明确鲚属鱼类的分类关系提供分子证据。主要研究结论如下: 1. 湖鲚、短颌鲚物种有效性不能得到分子数据支持。湖鲚、短颌鲚并非有效物种,为刀鲚(C. ectenes)的特殊生态类群。 2. 凤鲚有两个谱系来源,应将其亚种提升到种,可以采用凤鲚(C. mystus)和九龙江鲚(C. jiulongjiangensis)作为两个物种的名称。中国鲚属有4个有效物种:七丝鲚、刀鲚、凤鲚、九龙江鲚。 3. 通过构建NJ、MP和Bayesian系统发育树,得到中国鲚属种间系统发育关系为:刀鲚与七丝鲚构成姐妹群关系,然后再与凤鲚聚在一起,九龙江鲚位于系统发育树的基部。中国鲚属4种鱼类中,九龙江鲚最为原始,是最先分化出的物种;刀鲚、七丝鲚分化时间较迟,大约在上新世中期。 4. 种群分析共定义57个单倍型:七丝鲚5尾定义3个单倍型,凤鲚9尾定义9个单倍型,九龙江鲚20尾定义16个单倍型,刀鲚113尾定义29个单倍型。单倍型多样度高。 5. 高节点支持率的一致进化树以及丰富的遗传多态性证明Cyt b基因可以作为鲚属系统发育及种群进化分析中一个合适的遗传标记使用。 6. 鲚属刀鲚、凤鲚、九龙江鲚都具有较高的遗传多样度。相比较而言,凤鲚、九龙江鲚遗传多样性高于刀鲚。 7. 刀鲚、凤鲚、九龙江鲚都形成星状系统发育谱系,显示这三个物种过去都经历了种群扩张。 8. 刀鲚物种内存在广泛的基因交流,可能与刀鲚不同生态类群之间缺少地理隔离有关。长江中下游湖泊可能为刀鲚祖先种重要避难所,为适应冰期环境向湖泊扩散,被迫适应淡水洄游定居。 9. 凤鲚、九龙江鲚基因交流长期被阻断,两物种分化显著。不同地域的鲚属祖先群体受到不同水团温度、盐度梯度等影响可能是导致物种分化的原因。
英文摘要: The dissertation focused on the species classification and molecular systematics of two endangered commercial fish genera in China. We studied taxonomy of Cranoglanis Peters and phylogeny and biogeography of Coilia Gray by means of the morphological and molecular data, respectively. This paper’s content was divided into two main parts: The genus Cranoglanis (Silurformes: Cranoglanididae) is a group of fishes occurring only in East Asia. They are distributed in the drainages of Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan and the Red River drainage in northern Vietnam. At present, there are three recognized species in this genus: Cranoglanis bouderius, C. multiraditus and C. henrici, but there are still some arguments on the species validity of this genus. Multivariate morphometrics was conducted to clarify the confusion of species validity of the endemic Asian genus of Cranoglanis. 43 morphometric characters were measured for 66 specimens of the three Cranoglanis species from Zhujiang River drainage, Yuanjiang River and Hainan Island. Principle Component Analysis was used to study the inter-specific variations of the Cranoglanis species. The result indicated that there were no prominent differences among these three species. The Cranoglanis species in China is suggested as only one species, Cranoglanis bouderius. The genus Coilia belongs to Engraulidae in Clupeiformes, and it is a group of small fishes inhabiting the coastal of Western Pacific. There are four species distributed in China: Coilia ectenes, C. mystus, C. grayii, and C. brachygnathus. Some of the Coilia species became endangered in recent years. We determined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (980bp) for 147 individuals of the four Coilia species collected from the Yangtze River and the East and South Sea of China to study phylogeny and phylogeography of Coilia. Engraulis japonicus and E. encrasicolus were selected as outgroup taxa. The phylogenetic trees were constructed using MP, NJ, and Bayesian analysis methods. In this part main conclusions were as follows: Our molecular data suggested that Coilia ectenes taihuensis and C. brachygnathus could not be recognized as valid species, and they should be special ecological groups of C. ectenes. Individuals of the two subspecies of C. mystus form two different clades respectively, but these two clades are distantly related. The result indicated that the two subspecies of C. mystus should be considered as valid species. C. mystus and C. jiulongjiangensis were suggested as name of these two species. In China there are four valid species of Coilia: C. ectenes, C. grayii, C. mystus and C. jiulongjiangensis. Phylogenetic analyses with NJ, MP and Bayesian methods resulted in the same tree topology. Coilia ectenes was the sister group to C. grayii. Then they formed the sister group with C. mystus. The species C. jiulongjiangensis was basal in the trees. We presumed that C. jiulongjiangensis was the primitive species in the genus and the other three were specialized. The estimated divergence time revealed that separation of C. ectenes and C. grayii happened in the middle Pliocene. A total of 57 haplotypes were found in population genetic analysis, including 3 haplotypes in 5 individuals of C. grayii, 9 in 9 individuals of C. mystus, 16 in 20 individuals of C. jiulongjiangensis, and 29 in 113 individuals of C. ectenes. The natural populations of these four anchovy fish species had a high level of genetic diversity respectively. However, genetic diversity of the populations of C. mystus and C. jiulongjiangensis was higher than that of C. grayii and C. ectenes. C. ectenes, C. jiulongjiangensis, C. ectenes can form Star-like genealogy. Population expansion had been found in the C. ectenes, C. mystus and C. jiulongjiangensis. Frequent gene flow seemed to exist between the populations of C. ectenes. The lack of geographic isolation may cause hybridization between different ecological groups. The lakes beside the Changjiang River might be the refuge of C. ectenes during the glacial epochs. Gene flow had been blocked in C. mystus and C. jiulongjiangensis for a long time. C. jiulongjiangensis was differentiated evidently. The influence such as different water temperature, salinity gradient might be the cause of speciation.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12212
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
长臀鮠属与鲚属的物种有效性分析及系统学研究.刘彩霞[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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