中国科学院水生生物研究所机构知识库
Advanced  
IHB OpenIR  > 中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)  > 学位论文
题名: 高等水生植物在富营养化湖泊中的生长状况指标研究及人工浮岛工程
作者: 王正琪
答辩日期: 2007-01-04
导师: 倪乐意
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 水华 ; 梅雨 ; 水生植物 ; 游离氨基酸 ; 可溶性糖 ; 蛋白质 ; 超氧化物歧化酶(SOD) ; 过氧化物酶(POD)
其他题名: Studies on growth condition indices of aquatic macrophytes in eutrophic lakes and the techniques of artificial floating island
摘要: 近年来富营养化湖泊生态修复已成为科学家们研究的热点问题,而水生植物的恢复一般作为生态修复的手段和成功标志。然而水生植物在生态修复过程中往往出现成活率低和恢复后在夏季死亡的现象。一般认为,水体光照严重不足被认为是水生植物退化和难以恢复的主要原因,但是导致水体光照不足原因却因湖泊不同而有明显差异。在富营养化湖泊中,水体各种物理、化学和生物指标与正常水体有很大差异。水生植物在生态修复过程中的生理生化指标也因外界环境的变化而变化。本研究依据沉水植物对胁迫指标响应规律的实验研究,选择有微囊藻水华暴发、水生植物恢复工程后成活率低的太湖和无水华暴发、沉水植物(伊乐藻)恢复后在夏季死亡的东湖围隔作为水生植物的研究区域,分别在周年和梅雨季节尺度上对太湖梅梁湾恢复区的水生植物和武汉东湖围隔的伊乐藻的生理生化指标和相关环境因素进行监测。主要研究结果和结论如下: 2004-2005年对太湖梅梁湾富营养化水域移栽的水生植物狐尾藻、马来眼子菜、苦草、菱和荇菜生化指标的2周年动态研究表明:以上 5种水生植物的可溶性糖(SC)含量为5-105 mg/(g •DW);氨基酸(FAA)含量为1.9-15.8mg/(g•DW);蛋白质含量为0.7-9.2 mg/(g•FW);超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力为12-641 U /( mg•Pr)。不同生活型水生植物之间生化指标的差异很大:浮叶植物可溶性糖含量显著高于沉水植物;浮叶植物氨基酸含量和沉水植物相差不大;浮叶植物的SOD显著高于沉水植物。这表明对不同生活型水生植物的胁迫因素有明显差异。 夏季蓝藻水华暴发期间5种水生植物的SOD活性升至最高值,蛋白质含量降至最低值;大部分植物可溶性糖含量升高,氨基酸含量下降;所受胁迫与高营养或弱光胁迫导致的症状明显不同,显示水华是梅梁湾水生植物最严重的胁迫因素,胁迫症状表现为严重的氧化胁迫、氨基酸和蛋白质资源损失。 在富营养水体中种植的伊乐藻往往在夏季死亡,可能与初夏梅雨气候所产生的严重胁迫有关。2004年梅雨季节(6月7日-7月13日)对武汉东湖富营养化水域围隔中沉水植物伊乐藻的生化胁迫指标、生长以及相关环境理化因素(水深、溶解氧、消光系数和无机氮磷)进行了每3天一次的监测。结果显示降雨后水位上升,水柱中光照和溶解氧显著下降,氨氮明显上升;在此期间伊乐藻植株断裂严重,导致生物量下降;铵胁迫导致其超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)活性升高;弱光下游离氨基酸含量和蛋白质含量下降,可溶性糖含量升高,可能是由于光合作用下降导致的物质合成下降和分解增加;根和茎损伤导致过氧化物酶(POD)活性上升。本研究中各参数的动态变化趋势表明损伤、铵胁迫和物质分解显著影响了伊乐藻的生活状况,会降低伊乐藻对梅雨后高温和藻类爆发等胁迫因素的抵抗能力。 同时,在国家十五重大科技专项资助下开展了景观水体人工浮岛工程技术研究,将一些陆生草本花卉种类首次在国内浮岛上应用成功,所研制的人工浮岛具有净化和景观效果。
英文摘要: In recent years, ecological restoration of eutrophic lakes has been highlighted, and the restoration of aquatic macrophytes is considered to be a means of successful ecological restoration. However, the restored macrophytes are frequently found to be difficult to survive or easy to be dead in the summer. Underwater light deficiency is generally considered to be the main reason for decline and for restoration failure of aquatic macrophytes. The mechanism causing the light deficiency is also different among lakes due to their physical, chemical and biological difference. Especially in eutrophic lakes, the physical, chemical and biological indexes in the waters detected are very different from those in lakes of lower trophic levels. Physiological and biochemical indexes of aquatic macrophytes change in response to environmental variations. According to the response patterns reported in other experimental studies of macrophytes, the present study chose Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu where cyanobacteria blooms every year and the survival of restored macrophytes was low, and the enclosure in hypereutrophic Shuiguohu Bay of Lake Donghu, (nowithout cyanobacteria blooms, where E. nutalli was always dead in the summer after restoration, as investigative region of macrophytes. We monitored annual and early summer changes in and related environmental parameters, and physiological and biochemical indexes of 5 macrophytes in Meiliang Bay and E.nutalli in Shuiguohu Bay, respectively. The main results and conclusions are as follows: Annual dynamics of physiological and biochemical indexes of 7 aquatic macrophytes in the enutrophic waters showed that the SC contents changed from 5 to 105 mg/(g •DW), the FAA contents changed from 1.9 to 15.8 mg/(g •DW), the protein contents changed from 0.7 to 9.2 mg/(g •FW), and the SOD activity changed from 12 to 641 U /( mg•Pr) in the 5 aquatic macrophytes. During the presence of cyanobacteria bloom, the SOD activity of the five aquatic macrophytes reached the peak while their protein contents fell to the lowest. In this period, the soluble sugar content of most macrophytes increased while their amino acid content decreased. E. nutallii restored in eutrophic water was frequently found dead in summer. This may be due to exaggerating of environmental stresses with the heavy raining weather in early summer in Wuhan. We investigated the dynamics of environment parameters,and growth and biochemical indices of E. nutrallii at 2 days intervals from June 7 to July 13, 2004. Results showed that increased water depth, decreased DO and PAR, increased wave were related to growth inhibition. Increased tissue NH4+ under light deficiency caused the increase of SOD. Decrease of amino acids, soluble protein and soluble carbohydrate contents under light deficiency might be due to the decrease of photosynthesis, which enhanced decomposition and inhibited assimilation;Increased POD was observed with injury of shoots and roots. Dynamics of the investigated parameters showed that injury, ammonia accumulation and reserve consumption of E. nutallii had impacted the growth condition significantly, which further decreased the resistance of the plant to environmental stresses such as high temperature and algae blooming after the rainy season in midsummer.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12210
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
10001_200428011915045王正琪_paper.pdf(788KB)----暂不开放-- 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
高等水生植物在富营养化湖泊中的生长状况指标研究及人工浮岛工程.王正琪[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[王正琪]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[王正琪]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2016  中国科学院水生生物研究所 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace