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题名: 淡水生境高等水生植物的生理生态学研究
作者: 郭洪涛
答辩日期: 2008-06-17
导师: 倪乐意
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 富营养化 ; 苦草 ; 生长 ; 碳氮代谢 ; 伊犁河 ; 生物多样性 ; 海拔
其他题名: Physiological and ecological studies on aquatic macrophytes in freshwater habitats
摘要: 水生植被衰退在淡水水域普遍存在,在河流系统主要表现为生境丧失和物种多样性降低,在湖泊则表现在沉水植被衰退或消失。本研究分为两部分,湖泊沉水植物富营养胁迫研究和河流水生高等植物生物多样性研究。 第一部分是关于不同营养水平湖区湖水和底泥对苦草生长影响的研究。实验分别选用武汉东湖中营养和富营养湖区的湖水和底泥,并在水柱中添加氮或磷以设置高营养、中营养、中营养添加磷、中营养添加氮等四种营养环境。测定这四种营养条件下栽培苦草的生长和生化指标变化,探讨不同营养环境对苦草生长的影响机制。结果表明,苦草的生物量、叶数和新芽数等生长指标在中营养环境最高,中营养环境添加磷次之,中营养环境添加氮较低,在高营养环境最低;苦草可溶性糖和游离氨基酸含量在高营养环境中最高,在中营养环境、中营养环境添加磷和中营养环境添加氮等处理间没有明显差异。结果分析表明,高营养环境影响苦草的碳氮代谢水平并抑制苦草生长,这可能是由于苦草过量富集高营养环境中的氮素造成的;中营养环境中氮的升高会在一定程度上抑制苦草的生长,而磷的升高对苦草生长没有明显抑制作用。 第二部分关于伊犁河流域水生高等植物多样性研究,主要结果如下: 1. 野外调查结果表明伊犁河流域共有高等水生植物46种,隶属于2 门18科28属。除草麻黄为裸子植物外,其余种类均为被子植物。单子叶植物11科19属33种、双子叶植物6科8属12种。 2. 研究表明,物种α-多样性与科、属α-多样性显著相关,种β-多样性与科、属β-多样性也存在显著相关关系,说明伊犁河流域水生高等植物种一级水平和较高分类水平的变化是一致的。 3. 研究表明,物种α-多样性在海拔空间格局没有规律性。在各海拔区间内水生植物科、属、种β-多样性值呈现基本相同规律,即海拔高度相差越大,其间Jaccard 相似性系数越低,说明样点海拔跨度越大,植物相似性越小。
英文摘要: Decline of aquatic macrophytes commonly occurs in freshwater habitats. In fluvial ecosystem, the decline was about fall of biodiversity and degradation of habitats, and in lacustrine ecosystem, it was about the decay of the macrophytes. This thesis mainly focuses on the stress of eutrophication on lake aquatic macrophytes and biodiversities of river aquatic plants. The first part is the compasion about the effects of water and sediment from mesotrophic and eutrophic area of Lake Donghu, respecitively, on the growth of Vallisneria natans. There were four treatments in this study, including eutrophic and mesotrophic culture conditions, and mesotrophic condition with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus addition, respectively. The present study was measured growth indices, including biomass, the number and length of leaves and the number of buds, and biochemical indices, including soluble carbohydrate content and free amino acid content. The results showed that biomass, number of leaves and buds of V. natans grown in mesotrophic condition were the highest, then were those in the mesotrophic condition with phosphorus addition, then were those in mesotrophic condition with nitrogen addition, and the lowest were those in eutrophic condition. The results indicated that high trophic condition could inhibit the growth of V. natans significantly (p<0.05). Increase of inorganic nitrogen in mesotrophic water inhibited the growth of the plant more than did the increase of the phosphorus, suggesting nitrogen enrichment during eutrophication might be more important than phosphorus for the contribution in decline of macrophytes. Soluble carbohydrate and free amino acid contents of V. natans in eutrophic condition were markedly higher than those mesotrophic conditions, indicating that carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the plant were affected which might be attributed to excessive accumulation of N in eutrophic waters. The second part was about a field study on floristic diversity of aquatic vascular plants throughout River Yili. The main results were as follows: 1. The results of this field study showed that a total of 46 species belonged to 2 phylum, 18 families and 28 genera were found. Except Ephedra sinica, all species belonged to Angiosperm. Among these species, 11 families 19 genera and 33 species belonged to Monocotyledon, and 6 families 8 genera and 12 species Dicotyledon. 2. Analyses of field data showed that there were significant positive relations between α - diversity of species and α - diversity of genus and family in River Yili, respectively, and between β- diversity of species and β- diversity of genus and family were also significantly positively related. The results suggested that change of diversity in higher taxon units was similar to that in the species unit. 3. The results indicated a unimodal relationship between α - diversity and elevation. For β - diversity, there were similar changes among species, genus and family among different altitudinal intervals. The similarity indices of Jaccard between different sample sites increased with increasing elevation, suggesting the greater difference in elevation, the smaller similarity in aquatic plants.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12200
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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淡水生境高等水生植物的生理生态学研究.郭洪涛[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2008.20-25
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