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题名: 中山水栖寡毛类区系调查及底栖动物对湖泊环境定量指示初探
作者: 王宗兴
答辩日期: 2007-07-19
导师: 王洪铸
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 硕士
关键词: 水栖寡毛类 ; 区系 ; 新记录 ; 广东中山 ; 典范对应分析(CCA) ; 环境指示函数 ; 长江中下游湖泊
其他题名: FAUNAL SURVEY OF AQUATIC OLIGOCHAETA IN ZHONGSHAN, SOUTH CHINA AND PRELIMINARY STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATIONS BY ZOOBENTHOS IN THE YANGTZE LAKES
摘要: 本研究对广东中山淡水寡毛类进行了区系调查,对长江中下游13个阻隔湖泊和通江湖泊进行了底栖动物群落环境梯度分析,初步构建了环境指示函数。主要结果如下: 1. 在中山市共发现淡水寡毛类31种,隶属4科16属,包括1个国内新记录种即扇形管盘虫(Aulophorus flabelliger Stephenson, 1931),以及19个广东省新记录种。 2. 淡水寡毛类种类在不同水体分布不均匀,丰富度差异较大。在生境多样的水体计22 种,占总种数的71%;在生境单一水体如西江、沙溪鱼塘等,仅有1~3 种。在污染较严重的石歧河和神湾,仅见耐污种霍甫水丝蚓。 3. 经区系分析发现中山淡水寡毛类有较多的喜温成分,约40%为喜温种类,其中森珀头鳃虫和扇形管盘虫是热带种,在我国目前仅见于广东和广西,在国外分布于南亚、东非、澳洲和美国南部等地区。 4. 应用典范对应分析(CCA)对11个阻隔湖泊底栖动物与湖泊环境参数进行相关性分析,发现水深与透明度是影响湖泊底栖动物分布的主要环境因素。32种底栖动物在水深和透明度上存在着明显的生态位分化现象。中华河蚓、齿斑摇蚊、淡水壳菜、多毛管水蚓等10个属种与水深呈显著正相关;多足摇蚊、大脐圆扁螺、前突摇蚊、小摇蚊等18个属种与透明度呈显著正相关;而水丝蚓一种、摇蚊、雕翅摇蚊、长足摇蚊等4个属种则与水深、透明度呈显著负相关。通过计算各个属种对应的水深、透明度最适值,构建底栖动物-水深指示函数:y=-0.8+1.22x(y是最终环境推导值,x是以各属种的环境最适值为权重对各个属种百分含量的加权)和底栖动物-透明度指示函数:y=-0.67+1.77x。检验结果表明两个指示函数推导值与实测值之间均具有较高的相关系数(r值分别为0.78和0.81,n=58,p<0.001)。 5. 应用典范对应分析(CCA)对2个通江湖泊底栖动物与湖泊环境参数进行相关性分析,发现水深与流速是影响湖泊底栖动物分布的主要环境因素。长角涵螺、纹沼螺、钉螺、菱跗摇蚊与透明度呈显著正相关。多足摇蚊、霍甫水丝蚓、水丝蚓一种、光滑狭口螺、淡水壳菜等18个属种与流速呈显著负相关。齿斑摇蚊、摇蚊、腹鳃摇蚊、中华河蚓、环棱螺、黑龙江短沟蜷、方格短沟蜷等12属种与水深呈显著负相关。通过计算各个属种对应的水深和流速最适值,构建底栖动物-水深指示函数为:y=3.32+0.097x和底栖动物-流速指示函数为:y=0.16+0.21x。检验结果表明两个指示函数推导值与实测值之间均具有较高的相关系数(r值分别为0.83和0.79,n=24,p<0.001)。
英文摘要: The present paper embodies two studies: faunal analysis of aquatic oligochaeta in Zhongshan, South China, and environment gradient analyses of zoobenthos in 13 Yangtze shallow lakes. Environment-indicating functions of zoobenthos were preliminarily constructed. The results are mainly as follows: 1. Altogether 31 species of aquatic oligochaetes belonging to 16 genera and 4 families were identified. Among them, Aulophorus flabelliger (Naididae) is recorded from China for the first time. 2. Aquatic oligochaetes were unevenly distributed in Zhongshan waters and species numbers in various habitats were significantly different. There were a lot of taxa in heterogeneous habitats, but few in homogeneous habitats. 3. It is shown that Zhongshan has more thermophilus species than northern areas of China. Among the fauna, Branchiodrilus simperi and Aulophorus flabelliger are tropical species, distributed in Guangdong and Guangxi of South China and around the tropics of India, East Africa, Australia and USA. 4. The relationships between zoobenthos and environment variables in 11Yangtze-isolated lakes were revealed by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Water depth and Secchi depth were found to be the most important environmental factors regulating the distributions of zoobenthos. Niche differentiations occurred among 32 species in water depth and Secchi depth. Ten species including Rhyacodrilus sinicus, Aulodrilus pluriseta, Nais inflata, Cricotopus, Limnoperna lacustris, Alocinma longicornis etc., had significantly positive correlations with water depth; 18 species including Polypedilum, Hippeutis umbilicalis, Procladius, Microchironomus etc., had significantly positive correlations with Secchi depth; Four species, Limnodrilus sp., Chironomus, Glyptotendipes and Tanypus, had significantly negative correlations with depth and Secchi depth. Based the optimum value of each species, a zoobenthos-water depth indicatory function was generated as y=-0.8+1.22x, and a zoobenthos- Secchi depth indicatory function was generated as y=-0.67+1.77x. The validation results showed that the observed and predicted values were significantly correlated (r=0.78 and r=0.81 respectively, n=58, p<0.001). 5. The relationships between zoobenthos and environment variables in 2 Yangtze-connected lakes were revealed by CCA. Water velocity and water depth were found to be the most important factors regulating the distributions of zoobenthos. Niche differentiations occurred among 29 species in Secchi depth, water velocity and water depth. Four species including Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Oncomelania hupensis and Clinotanypus, had significant positive correlations with Secchi depth; 18 species including Polypedilum, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Limnodrilus sp., Stenothyra glabra, Limnoperna lacustris etc., had significant negative correlations with water velocity; 12 species including Stictochironomus, Chironomus, Einfeldia, Rhyacodrilus sinicus, Bellamya, Semisulcospira amuremis, Semisulcospira cancellat etc., had significant negative correlations with water depth. Based on the optimum value of each species, a zoobenthos-water depth indicatory function was generated as y=3.32+0.097x, and a zoobenthos-water velocity indicatory function was generated as y=0.16+0.21x. The validation results showed that the observed and predicted values were significantly correlated (r= 0.83 and r= 0.79 respectively, n=24, p<0.001). At the end of this summary, the author presents diagnoses of the new record species. Aulophorus flabelliger Stephenson, 1931 (Fig. 2-7- A, B, C) Material: IHB GD2005006a-b, two whole-mounted specimens; IHB GD2005006c-d, two glycerine-mounted specimens; GD2005006e, one specimen in 10% formalin; all from plant zoots in Beitaiyong stream (22°26′29.7″N, 113°22′34.9″E) of Zhongshan. The specimens are deposited in the Institute of Hydrobiology (IHB), Chinese Academy of Sciences, in Wuhan, China. Description: Five complete preserved specimens about 3mm long, 0.18mm wide, 21-26 segments. Body transparent. No eyes. Dorsal chaetae from VI onwards. 1 hair per bundle, 72-76 μm long. 1 palmate needle per bundle, 44-48 μm long, 2.7-2.9 μm thick, with nodulus distal; teeth strongly diverging, maximally 12 μm wide, distal one 12 μm long and proximal 10 μm long, with web and 20-25 intermediate teeth. Ventral bifids of II-V 3-5 per bundle, 90-102 μm long, 2.4-2.5 μm thick, longer and thinner than the rest, with nodulus proximal; distal tooth 5.0 μm long and proximal 2.9 μm long. Those following 3-4 per bundle, 44-52 μm long, 1.9 μm thick, with nodulus distal; distal tooth much shorter and thinner than proximal (1.5 μm : 2.9 μm in length, 0.7 μm : 2.1 μm in base thickness). Branchial fossa with 3 pairs of long, cylindrical gills, and a pair of finger-like parallel palps. Portable tube about 4 mm long, 0.24 mm wide, delicate and transparent. Remarks:This tropical species was originally described from Kenya (Stephenson, 1931), and subsequently reported also from Somalia (Ercolini, 1970), Australia (Brinkhurst & Jamieson, 1971), India (Kalpana & Naidu, 1979) and southern USA (Brenneman, 1980). Our material conforms to the previous descriptions (Stephenson, 1931; Ercolini, 1970; Brinkhurst & Jamieson, 1971; Kalpana & Naidu, 1979; Brenneman, 1980) in most aspects, but needles are different to some extent (Table 2). Under an oil immersion objective, needles of our specimens were found to have numerous intermediate teeth, which have not been mentioned before. The forms of Somalia and India were reported to have web indentations near distal teeth of needles,and those of Kenya, Australia and USA near proximal teeth. The authors are of the opinion that the difference in needles is a matter of observation, for the numerous teeth are rather difficult to be distinguished from the web; under a 40× objective, the needles of Zhongshan worms were similar to the published drawings. In addition, hairs and needles of the present specimens are somewhat shorter than those in the previous descriptions. Distribution and habitat: Zhongshan of south China (new record), India, East Africa (Kenya, Somalia), Australia, and USA (Louisiana); all tropical and subtropical regions (31°N-29°S). Decomposing roots of water-plant in ponds and streams.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12186
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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中山水栖寡毛类区系调查及底栖动物对湖泊环境定量指示初探.王宗兴[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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