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题名: 不同基质对垂直流人工湿地处理效果及堵塞影响研究
作者: 张翔凌
答辩日期: 2007-06-10
导师: 吴振斌
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 垂直流人工湿地 ; 基质 ; 有机物 ; ; ; 去除机理 ; 堵塞
其他题名: STUDIES ON PERFORMANCE OF PURIFICATION AND INFLUENCE ON CLOGGING OF VERTICAL FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS WITH DIFFERENT FILTER MEDIA
摘要: 垂直流人工湿地是—项适合我国国情、极具广阔应用前景的水处理技术,人工湿地的基本原理尽管已开始被人们所认识,但湿地净化主体之一——基质的研究仍处于起步阶段,不同基质对垂直流人工湿地的处理效果,及基质对湿地堵塞的影响仍需仔细研究。 本实验针对不同基质的净化效率及其堵塞问题进行研究,以自建垂直流人工湿地实验系统为实验基地,以湖水与生活污水的混合水作为处理对象,通过对初选出的沸石、无烟煤、页岩、蛭石、陶瓷滤料、砾石、钢渣、生物陶粒等八种不同类型、不同质地、不同来源的基质,进行为期一年的净化实验,研究它们对于污水中各种类型污染物的去除效果,并同时进行水力学、生物学等方面的实验,比选出综合能力较好或单一去除效率突出的基质,为垂直流人工湿地设计、运行提供依据,以期通过选择合理的基质,达到理想的去除效果,并有效防止湿地的堵塞,延长人工湿地的使用寿命。 主要研究结果如下: 一、八种基质对原污水的处理效果 1、在处理原污水中有机物方面,八种基质综合去除能力由强到弱排列依此为:无烟煤、生物陶粒、蛭石、沸石、钢渣、陶瓷滤料、砾石、页岩; 2、在处理原污水中各种形态的氮方面,八种基质综合去除能力由强到弱排列依此为:沸石、陶瓷滤料、无烟煤、钢渣、蛭石、生物陶粒、砾石、页岩; 3、在处理原污水中各种形态的磷方面,八种基质综合去除能力由强到弱排列依此为:钢渣、无烟煤、生物陶粒、砾石、蛭石、页岩、沸石、陶瓷滤料; 4、简单综合基质对原污水中的有机物、磷、氮的去除效果,八种基质综合去除能力由强到弱排列依此为:无烟煤、钢渣、沸石、生物陶粒、蛭石、陶瓷滤料、砾石、页岩; 5、在八种基质处理水的物化指标方面,无烟煤出水呈弱酸性,TDS浓度较高,离子浓度、电导率及盐度均偏高;钢渣出水呈强碱性,TDS浓度非常高,电导率、离子浓度及盐度均很高;其它基质出水正常; 6、在去除原污水中细菌总数方面,八种基质均有较好的去除效果,其中钢渣最好,出水几乎检不出细菌总数,而无烟煤相对较差; 7、在运行指标方面,在整个实验周期中,蛭石和砾石对各种污染物指标去除效果的波动性较大,而沸石、无烟煤、钢渣、生物陶粒对各种指标的去除效果比较稳定; 8、八种基质对有机物的去除机理主要集中于物理作用和生物作用;对氮的去除机理主要集中于生物作用和物理作用;对磷的去除机理主要集中于物理作用和化学作用;但不同基质略有不同,如钢渣和无烟煤的处理机理主要集中于化学作用和物理作用;而其它六种基质基本上是物理、化学与生物反应共同作用的结果; 9、根据一年多基质实验的系统运行和指标监测情况,并综合考虑湿地运行的各种影响因素,可以得出初步的结论:无烟煤、沸石、生物陶粒可作为高效的垂直流人工湿地基质;钢渣、蛭石、陶瓷滤料可作为垂直流人工湿地的辅助基质。 二、八种基质组成成分定性定量分析 1、在基质的组成成分方面,沸石、页岩、蛭石、砾石、陶瓷滤料的基质组成较为稳定,实验前后变化不大;无烟煤、钢渣、生物陶粒的组成成分有一定的变化; 2、几种综合处理效果较好的基质中,无烟煤基质的成分组成以C和S为主;钢渣基质的成分组成以Ca和Si为主;沸石基质的成分组成以Si和Al为主;而处理效果最差的页岩基质,其成分组成虽也以Si和Al为主,但Fe和Mg的含量也较其它基质要高; 3、在去除机理方面,结合基质组成成分的变化,可以发现,在去除机理是物理反应还是化学反应这个问题上:沸石、页岩、蛭石、砾石、陶瓷滤料、生物陶粒以物理作用为主,而钢渣和无烟煤以化学反应为主; 4、沸石、页岩、钢渣和生物陶粒具有一定吸附有毒金属元素的作用,该特性有待进一步研究,使这些基质具有更为广泛的处理能力。 三、八种基质对湿地堵塞的影响 1、系统水头损失和水力停留时间可以反映湿地内的堵塞情况,八种基质中,生物陶粒、钢渣、沸石和蛭石的堵塞情况不明显,而砾石的堵塞情况较为严重;不同基质堵塞机理各有不同; 2、基质自身结构特性会影响到堵塞,通过对不同基质孔隙率、渗透系数、含水率以及有机质的测定与综合分析,页岩和砾石对堵塞的影响较大;相对其较好的处理率而言,无烟煤的孔隙率和含水率较小,值得注意; 3、通过对系统进出水流量的监测与分析发现,页岩和砾石基质中由于堵塞的发生,其进出水平均流速、流量与累计流量受到较大影响;而蛭石基质有较好持水度与容水度,可利用此特性提高其处理效果。
英文摘要: Vertical-flow constructed wetland is a promising wastewater treatment technology which is suitable for the conditions of China. Although its main mechanisms have been gradually recognized, the mechanism of the filtering media, which is one of the principal parts for wetland purification, is still in its infancy stage. Further understanding of treatment performance with different media and their influences on clogging are needed and necessary. In this paper, aiming at performance of different filtering media and the problem of clogging, a year-round purification experiment was performed in the home-made experimental base, treating the simulative wastewaters which are mixed by the polluted lake water and septic tank effluent. Eight different filtering media (zeolite, anthracite, shale, vermiculite, ceramic filter media, gravel, blast furnace steel slag and biomaterial ceramsite) were chose deliberately; removal rates and mechanisms of various types of pollutants in water samples were studied also. Along with hydraulic and biological experiments, the filtering medium that was of best comprehensive advantages or outstanding removal efficiency for single pollutant was sort out. Also, a novel pathway for design, management and maintain of the vertical-flow constructed wetland was suggested, by choosing appropriate filtering media, the clogging phenomena could be effectively prevented, thus the life-span of constructed wetland would be extend. The main results were as following: Removal of pollutants: 1. For the removal rates of organic matters, eight media were sorted by comprehensive removal capacity as: anthracite, biomaterial ceramsite, vermiculite, zeolites, blast furnace steel slag, ceramic filter media, gravel and shale. 2. For the removal rates of various forms of nitrogen, eight media were sorted as: zeolites, ceramic filter media, anthracite, blast furnace steel slag, vermiculite, biomaterial ceramsite, gravel and shale. 3. For the removal rates of various forms of phosphorus, eight media were sorted as: blast furnace steel slag, anthracite, biomaterial ceramsite, gravel, vermiculite, shale, zeolites and ceramic filter media. 4. Simply integrating the removal rates of organic matters, various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, eight media were sorted as: anthracite, blast furnace steel slag, zeolites, biomaterial ceramsite, vermiculite, ceramic filter media, gravel and shale. 5. For the physical and chemical indicators, the effluent of anthracite system (pilot plot) was weak acid, with TDS, ion concentration, conductivity and salinity somewhat high. In parallel, the effluent of blast furnace steel slag system was strong alkaline, with TDS, ion concentration, conductivity and salinity all extremely high. The effluents of other systems were normal. 6. For the removal rates of the total number of bacteria, eight filtering media all had good removal performance. The effluent of blast furnace steel slag system (pilot plot) was best and the effluent of anthracite system was worst among the eight systems. 7. For the operation indexes of the entire experimental cycle, the removal rates of organic matters, various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus fluctuated greatly in the effluents of vermiculite and gravel systems. And the removal rates maintained stable in the effluents of zeolites, anthracite, blast furnace steel slag and biomaterial ceramsite systems. 8. The organic matters and various forms of nitrogenin eight simulated systems were supposed to be removed mainly through physical and biological processes. And the various forms of phosphorus were supposed to be removed mainly through physical and chemical processes. But different filtering media had slightly different removal mechanisms. As for the blast furnace steel slag and anthracite systems, the main removal mechanisms were supposed to be chemical and physical processes, but for other filter media, removal mechanisms were the common results of the physical, chemical and biological processes. 9. Based on the experimental data and operational indicators for 1.5 year experimental cycle, along with various factors while wetlands operation, we could come to a preliminary conclusion that anthracite, zeolites and biomaterial ceramsite could be the high-efficient media in vertical-flow constructed wetland; vermiculite, blast furnace steel slag and ceramic filter media could be the assistant efficient media in vertical-flow constructed wetland. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on composition: 1. Eight filtering media were compareed with their constituent elements by qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, gravel, zeolites, shale, vermiculite and ceramic filter media had more stable components in the entire experimental cycle, and the components of anthracite, blast furnace steel slag and biomaterial ceramsite had certain changes. 2. In several media with better integrated purification results, the constituent elements of anthracite were mainly carbon and sulfur; the constituent elements of blast furnace steel slag were mainly calcium and silicon; the constituent elements of zeolites were mainly silicon and aluminum. As the media with worst integrated purification results, the constituent elements of shale were also mainly silicon and aluminum, but the contents of iron and magnesium were higher than others. 3. With the consideration of changes of composition, the main removal mechanisms in gravel, zeolites, shale, biomaterial ceramsite, vermiculite and ceramic filter media systems were physical process, and the main removal mechanisms in anthracite and blast furnace steel slag systems were chemical process. 4. Zeolites, shale, blast furnace steel slag and biomaterial ceramsite were characteristic of their adsorption ability of toxic metals. In order to find more extensive treatment capacity, their purification capacity and characteristics needed further study. Studies of influence on clogging with different filter media: 1. Head loss and hydraulic retention time could reflect the extent of the wetlands clogging. During the entire experimental cycle, little clogging was found in biomaterial ceramsite, zeolites, vermiculite and blast furnace steel slag systems, but in the gravel system the problem was serious relatively. Different media had different mechanisms of clogging. 2. The structural characteristics of each media could influence clogging. Through the experiment of porosity, permeability, water contents and organic matter, we could comprehensively analyze the structural characteristics of the shale and gravel media and found that these two media influenced clogging greatly. And it was noteworthy that the anthracite media had a relatively higher performance for removal of pollutants, but its porosity and water content were smaller than others. 3. Through the water flow monitoring and analysis, we could find that clogging changed with the average velocity of flow, the average flow and total flow in the shale and gravel media systems. On the other hand, the vermiculite media had better performance for removal of pollutants because of its good water-holding capacity and the degree of water capacity.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12166
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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不同基质对垂直流人工湿地处理效果及堵塞影响研究.张翔凌[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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