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武汉城市湖泊水系中有机污染物的分布特征研究
Alternative TitleStudies on Distribution Characteristics of Organic Pollutants in Urban Lakes in Wuhan,China
宋慧婷
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor吴振斌
2007-06-15
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword持久性有机污染物 武汉湖泊水系 水样 沉积物 悬浮物
Abstract随着工农业生产的快速发展,未经处理或处理不当的工业废水大量向水体排放;煤、石油等燃料的不完全燃烧和化工产业、各种车辆排放到大气中的有毒有害气体以及农田施用的农药,通过大气沉降和地表径流进入到水体中,并长久蓄积于沉积物中,对水生生态环境和人体健康造成严重的危害。该类持久性有机污染物在水中的含量只有ppm级或ppt级,甚至更低,但在生理和生态方面的毒性却很大。常规的BOD、COD等监测指标不能反映其污染水平,因此水体中持久性有机污染物的研究已是环境污染控制中的重要组成部分。武汉市位于长江、汉水交汇处,湖泊众多,水域面积约占全市总面积的四分之一,是全国湖泊最多的城市。水质污染和湖泊营养化是武汉市城市湖泊目前存在的主要环境问题。湖泊水质以Ⅲ类、Ⅳ类为主,无Ⅰ类湖泊水域,Ⅱ类湖泊水域少。以往对湖泊的研究主要集中在富营养化问题,研究具体的有机物的污染问题的报道较少。 本文探讨了武汉市四个水系的16个湖泊中持久性有机物的污染状况,评价它们的污染程度,主要研究的结论如下: 1.应用混合外标法定量分析了湖泊水系中25种持久性有机污染物含量,除五氯酚、六氯环戊二烯因低于检测限而未能在研究区域检出外,其它多数种类的有机污染物在各个采样点样品中均有不同程度的检出。其中,酞酸酯类的含量明显高于比其它类别,多环芳烃类、硝基苯和异佛尔酮含量相对较低。城市湖泊主要是受工业废水和生活污水污染,因而酞酸酯在湖泊中含量最高。 2.各水系25种持久性有机污染物总含量由高至低的顺序是东沙湖水系>汤逊湖水系>汉阳东湖水系>北湖水系。在汤逊湖水系出现例外,悬浮物和表层沉积物样中,汤逊湖水系含量偏低。中层沉积物样和下层沉积物样一致,汤逊湖水系含量最高。在汉阳东湖水系,25种持久性有机污染物总含量顺序为南太子湖>墨水湖、月湖>三角湖>后官湖,东沙湖水系的4个湖泊含量顺序为沙湖>东湖(水果湖> 郭郑湖>汤菱湖>牛巢湖>喻家湖>后湖)>小潭湖>杨春湖,汤逊湖水系含量顺序为南湖>汤逊湖>黄家湖、青菱湖>野湖。北湖水系25种持久性有机污染物含量严西湖>严东湖。说明污染程度与污染源的关系是密不可分的。靠近城市和工业区的样点,接纳的工业废水和生活污水量大,检出的有机污染物浓度高,污染相对严重。而远离城市和工业区部分,污染物浓度低,污染程度较轻。 3.持久性有机污染物从水体到悬浮物富集系数较大,悬浮物到表层沉积物富集系数接近于1,中层沉积物和下层沉积物略高,各湖富集系数略有差异。说明整个水系的污染主要是近半个世纪沉积下来的。 4.增塑剂中使用的最多两种酞酸酯类污染物:邻苯二甲酸二正丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸二乙基己基酯(DEHP),含量明显高于其它污染物,二者浓度加起来占了25种所测定的持久性有机污染物总浓度的10%-99%,是水系中主要的酞酸酯类污染物。东沙湖水系(平均值9100.48ng/l)和汤逊湖水系(平均值6185.13ng/l)中DBP含量均超过国家地表水标准GB3838-2002(3000ng/l)。 5.多环芳烃类总浓度纵向来看,在中层沉积物样中含量是最高的,其次是下层沉积物样和表层沉积物样,悬浮物样和水样中含量相对较低,水样中变化范围较大。PAHs在水体中的溶解度不大,一般通过吸附在悬浮颗粒上而沉积下来,所以沉积物中含量相对高一些。BAP在表层沉积物和悬浮物样中含量是最高的,其次是中层沉积物样和下层沉积物样,水样中含量最低。沙湖(6.72-8.81ng/l)和汤逊湖(0.36-10.89ng/l)、南湖(1.10-4.31ng/l)部分点水样中BAP含量超过国家标准(2.8ng/l)。BaA/(BaA+Chr)的比值在0.5左右,说明存在双重污染,其主要来源可能是周边汽车排放的尾气和工厂化石燃料燃烧的污染物进入水体,再就是工业废气废液的排放所造成的。各湖BaA/Chrysene的比值范围在0.02~52.24,说明污染严重的湖泊PAHs传输途径较短,而污染程度较轻的湖泊PAHs传输途径较长一些。湖泊中多环芳烃的来源主要是受附近城市生活和工业废水排放的影响,通过迁移造成湖泊水系的污染。 6.硝基苯总浓度在绝大多数样中含量都不高,各湖水样和悬浮物中含量相对较高,富集程度都不大,说明采样期间附近有点源污染入湖。表层沉积物含量并不高,说明近年来硝基苯入湖污染较少。中层和下层含量急剧增加,说明曾经有较大量的硝基苯污染源排入水系湖泊。其中,东湖部分位点2,4-二硝基甲苯含量(22.17-736.33ng/l)超过了国家标准(300ng/l)。硝基苯的主要污染来源可能是其周边工业和医院等。 7.异佛尔酮含量占25种持久性有机污染物总浓度的0~16.74%,在所有的样中都有检出但含量都不高。在月湖和墨水湖、杨春湖和东湖有六氯苯检出,与早年大量废水排放直接进入水体,以及与周边固体废弃物的焚烧、医疗垃圾的焚烧、污泥的焚烧等过程有关。 8.总的来看,武汉市湖泊水系受持久性有机污染物污染程度较低,其中,东湖、沙湖、汤逊湖、南湖部分污染物超标,黄家湖虽未超标,但比较接近国家标准,需引起重视。
Other AbstractWith the fast development of industry and agriculture,the industrial sewage, without treatment or with improper treatment, had been massively discharged into water bodies. The incomplete combustion products of the fuel, such as the coal and petroleum, and the virulent noxious gas from the chemical industry and kinds of vehicles being discharged into the atmosphere, as well as the agricultural chemicals fertilized by farmland, had been entered into water bodies through the atmospheric subsidence and the surface runing off, and stored in the sediment for a long time, heavily harming the aquatic ecological structure and human health. The toxicity of those persistent organic pollutants (POPs) only with the ppb or ppt magnitude in water bodies or even more lowerly, was very big in physiological and ecological aspect. The conventional monitor parameter such as BOD, COD, cannot reflect the pollution levels of POPs in water bodies, so it is the important component of the environmental pollution controlment to carry on the research on POPs in water bodies. Wuhan,with so many lakes, is located at the connect with Yangtze River and Hanshui River. The area of lakes is approximately 1/4 of the city total area and so is known as the city with the most urban lakes in China. The water pollution and the eutrophication are the main environment questions in Wuhan urban lakes at present. The water quality was mainly of class III and IV, no class I and few lakes belonged to class II. Formerly, the research on urban lakes’ pollution was carried mainly about the eutrophication, while the reports about studies on the POPs was so less. This article has discussed the POPs in 16 lakes belonging to four urban lake systems in Wuhan and showed the degree of artificialiy organic pollutants. The main results were shown as follows: 1.The study has examined the content of 25 POPs in four lake systems using the mix external standard. Most of 25 POPs were present except pentachlorophenol, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, which were too low to be detected in all water, SPM, and sediment samples from the studying locations. Among of them, the content of phthalates was obviously higher than the other kinds, and the content of PAHs, PNBs and isophoron was relatively lower. The main resources of organic pollutants in urban lakes were industrial wastewater and municipal sewage,thus the content of phthalates was the highest. 2.Comparing the total contents of 25 POPs in four lake systems, the results showed the tendengcy as Dongshahu lake system> Tangxunhu lake system> Donghu lake system in Hanyang district>Beihu lake syetem, only except in Tangxunhu lake system. The contents of 25 POPs in SPM and in the surface sediment samples from Tangxunhu lake system were lower than those from Donghu lake system in Hanyang district, while the contents in the subsediment layer and in the deep sediment layer samples were the highest. In Donghu lake system in Hanyang district, the tendency of the total contents of 25 POPs was Nantaizihu lake> Moshuihu lake and Yuehu lake > Sanjiaohu lake > Houguanhu lake, and the tendency in Dongshahu lake system was Shahu lake> Donghu lake (Shuiguohu lake > Guozhenghu lake > Tanglinghu lake> Niuchaohu lake > Yujiahu lake >Houhu lake) > Xiaotanhu lake > Yangchunhu lake, and the tendency in Tangxunhu lake system was Nanhu lake> Tangxunhu lake> Huangjiahu lake and Qinglinghu lake > Yehu lake, and it in Beihu lake syetem was Yanxihu lake> Yandonghu lake. The results showed the pollution degree related heavily with the source of pollutants. The content of POPs in the locations near to the urban center and industrial district was higher and the pollutant degree was relatively more serious, because of lots of effluents of industrial waste and municipal sewage. While the content was lower and the pollutant degree was relatively lighter in the locations far away from the urban center and the industrial district. 3.The concentration factor of POPs from water to the suspended particulate matter (SPM) sample was larger,and the concentration factor from SPM to the surface sediment was close to 1. The content from the subsediment layer and the deep sediment layer samples were slightly higher. The concentration factor from various lakes was slightly different. It showed POPs from lake systems were deposited mainly the last half century. 4.Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ehtylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) have been used most largely of phthalates in the plasticizer, the content of which obviously was higher than other kinds of POPs in major samples. Their contents has accounted 10%-99% of 25 POPs, and then they were the main pollutants in lake systems. The content of DBP,in Dongshahu lake system with the mean of 9100.48ng/l and in Tangxunhu lake system with the mean of 6185.13ng/ L,exceeded the national surface water standard GB3838-2002(3000ng/ L). 5.The concentration of PAHs in the subsediment layer was highest, and the next was the deep sediment layer and the surface sediment samples, while the concentration in SPM and water appeared correlatively lower. The range of the content in water was large. The solubility of PAHs in the water bodies was small, and PAHs in water generally deposited through the adsorption on the suspended particle, therefore the content of PAHs in sediment samples was somewhat high. Among of them, the concentration of BAP in the surface sediment and SPM was the highest, and the next was that in the subsediment layer and in the deep sediment layer samples, while the lowest was that in water. The content of BAP,in Shahu Lake(6.72-8.81ng/L),in Tangxunhu Lake(0.36-10.89ng/ L)and in Nanhu Lake(1.10-4.31ng/ L),exceeded the national surface water standard GB3838-2002 (2.8ng/l). The ratio of BaA/ (BaA+Chr) in most of locations was nearly 0.5, and it possiblly has the dual pollution sources of PAHs in these urban lakes. The main source might be dischargeed into water bodies from the fossil fuel high-intensity combustion pollutants and the industrial waste gas and waste effluents. The ratio of BaA/Chrysene changed from 0.02 to 52.24 in samples. It indicated the PAHs route of transmission was shorter in the seriously polluted lakes, while longer somewhat in the lightly polluted lakes. PAHs, related mainly of nearby urban lives and the industrial waste discharging through the long distance migration, has possibilly created the lake system pollution. 6.The content of PNBs was not high in the overwhelming major location. It was relatively higher in water and SPM samples, and the concentration factor was small. The point pollutant source might be discharged into the lakes in the collecting sample period. The content in the surface sediment was small, showing in the recent years less PNBs into lakes. The content in the subsediment layer and the deep sediment layer increased sharply, indicating lake systems once had massive sources of PNBs pollutants dispersed into lakes. Among of them,the content of 2,4-Dinitrobenzenen in some locations of Donghu Lake(22.17-736.33ng/l),exceeded the national surface water standard GB3838-2002(300ng/l). The main PNBs pollution originated possibly the industry nearby and the hospital and so on. 7.The content of isophoron,accounting 25 POPs total concentrations of n.d.~16.74%, was not high. Hexachlorobenzene was presented in some location of Yuehu lake, Moshuihu Lake, Yangchunhu Lake and Donghu Lake, relating possiblely with long ago discharging massive waste water directly into water bodies, the medical trash and the solid reject burning, and the sludge burning and so on. 8.In brief,the content of POPs in lake systems in Wuhan was small,while some POPs exceeded or close to the national surface water standard in some locations of Donghu Lake,Shahu Lake,Tangxunhu Lake,Nanhu Lake and Huangjiahu Lake. This status should bring into attention.
Pages142
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12160
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋慧婷. 武汉城市湖泊水系中有机污染物的分布特征研究[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.
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