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鲀形目(硬骨鱼纲,鲀形目)鱼类若干类群的分子系统发育及分化时间估算
Alternative TitleMolecular Phylogenetics and Divergence Time Estimations of Several Groups of Tetraodontiformes (Teleostei: Tetraodontiformes)
张玉波
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor何舜平
2007-07-19
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword鲀形目 鲀科 东方鲀属 系统发育 分子钟 分歧时间 细胞色素b 线粒体基因 新种
Abstract鲀形目(Tetraodontiformes)是真骨鱼类中最为特化的一个类群,该类群大部分物种的主要生活区域是海洋水域,它们的形态学特征和生活习性差异巨大。目前,世界上现存的鲀形目鱼类可分为2亚目、6总科、10科、100属,包括大约350个物种。我们选择鲀形目、鲀科(Tetraodontidae)和东方鲀属(Takifugu Abe)这三个不同的分类阶元,分别以线粒体基因作为主要的分子标记,采用了邻接法(NJ)、最大简约法(MP)、最大似然法(ML)和Bayesian等方法构建了分子系统树,用以阐明这三个类群内部的系统发育关系,并对鲀形目和鲀科鱼类的分歧时间进行了估算。在论文完成过程中,我们还鉴定了东方鲀属鱼类中的一新种。其主要的研究结论如下: 1. 在珠江口东莞虎门境内采获两尾东方鲀属(Takifugu Abe)鱼类标本,经鉴定为一新种,命名为林氏东方鲀(Takifugu lini)。新种体背部和腹部皮肤具有小刺;体背刺区与腹背刺区相互分离,不在体侧相连接;体侧暗色胸斑小前倾斜位;体背部仅具有一连接两侧胸斑的不明显暗色横带。同花斑东方鲀Takifugu variomaculatus(Li et Kuang)相似而明显区别与该属其他物种。林氏东方鲀是以采样地点虎门有密切联系的著名民族英雄林则徐的名字命名的。目前,林氏东方鲀仅见分布于珠江河口咸淡水区。 2. 本研究通过联合17种(21尾)东方鲀属鱼类的细胞色素b(1137 base pair,bp)和12S rRNA(952 bp)基因全序列研究了东方鲀属鱼类的系统发育关系。结果表明:(1)东方鲀属鱼类为一单系类群;(2)基于分子系统发育分析,东方鲀属鱼类可划分为六个亚群;(3)在分子水平上,本属各鱼类物种的遗传距离比较接近。研究结果还表明,本属鱼类可能存在着同物异名的现象,物种分类可能还需要进一步的澄清。同时,我们还发现种间杂交现象可能对本属鱼类中物种的形成分化发育有重要影响。 3. 鲀科鱼类是鲀形目鱼类中的一个主要类群,主要分布在温暖水性的咸淡水河口区域和海域。本研究利用44个个体的细胞色素b基因序列(1125 bp),重建了鲀科鱼类内部各种属间的系统发育关系。并在此基础上对鲀科鱼类的分化时间进行了估算。研究结果表明:(1)鲀科鱼类为一单系类群,鲀科鱼类可划分为两个大的亚群;(2)在分子水平上,鲀科鱼类种属间的遗传距离比较接近,表明其种属间分化时间较短或分化速率较快;(3)分歧时间估算结果表明,鲀科鱼类大约在32.84~34.81Myr开始分化形成的。 4. 本研究中我们以细胞色素b基因序列为基础,涵盖了鲀形目鱼类全部10科中54个个体(包括3个外类群)重建了鲀形目鱼类的系统发育关系。并在此基础上中对鲀形目鱼类的分化时间进行了估算。研究结果表明:(1) 鲀形目鱼类为一单系类群;(2)研究了鲀形目鱼类的系统发育关系;(3)利用分子钟假说,对鲀形目鱼类内部各主要类群间的分歧时间进行了估算,结果表明,鲀形目鱼类大约在97.99~103.42Myr前开始分化形成的。
Other AbstractThe order Tetraodontiformes is one of the most derived fish group and comprises approximately 350 species of fishes displaying an incredible range of morphological diversity. The group consists primarily of tropical and subtropical marine reefdwellers. It could be further divided into 2 suborders, 6 superfamilies, 10 families and 100 genera. We have used mitochondrial gene sequences as molecular markers to reconstruct the phylogeny of Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae and Takifugu Abe. Molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. We have estimated the divergence time of Tetraodontiformes and Tetraodontidae based on their phylogeny. During the time, we have identified a new species of Takifugu Abe. The main conclusions and hypotheses of the present study were as follows. 1. Two individuals in genus Takifugu Abe were collected from the estuary area of Peal River in Humen Town, Guangdong Province, China. These two specimens were identified as a new species, named Takifugu lini. It distinguished from all other species of Takifugu with: small and thin prickles on their back and abdomen; doral and vental spinose areas separated; small pectoral blotchs with slanting pitching; an unconspicuous fuscous band on back connecting zygomorphic pectoral blotch; alive green-brown grounding on back; many nacarat vermiculate speckles distribute from snout area to the back of tail-petiole. The species could only be found in the briny-fresh water area in estuary of Peal River. 2. Pufferfishes of genus Takifugu Abe (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae) are comprised of a comparatively small number of species and are mainly distributed along the coastal region of the western part of the Sea of Japan and the coastline of China. Mitochondrial gene sequences were employed to test the phylogenetic hypotheses within the genus. Seventeen species of the genus were examined. Our hypothesis of internal relationships within the genus differs from previous hypothesis. Our results indicated that (1) genus Takifugu is a monophyletic assemblage; (2) the genus is divided into six subgroups based on the molecular data; and (3) there is low genetic diversity among the species within the genus. In addition, speciation within Takifugu appears to be driven by hybridization and isolation by distribution. Our results also suggested that the taxonomy in the genus should be clarified based on both molecular and morphological data. 3. Tetraodontidae is a main group in order Tetraodontiformes, which primarily of tropical and subtropical pelagic, benthic slope-dwellers, and brackish and freshwater species. Twenty-eight species of the family were examined. Different methods were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogenetic trees. Then we estimated the divergence time of the main groups in Tetraodontidae. Our results indicated that (1) Tetraodontidae is a monophyletic group and could be divided into two clades; (2) the genetic distance of different groups is close in molecular level, which implied the divergence time was close or the speed of differentiation was fast; (3) with respect to the divergence times obtained, the origin of the Tetraodontidae is estimated here is about 32.84~34.81Myr. 4. The order Tetraodontiformes consist of 10 families. All of these families are included in this analysis. Different methods were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogenetic trees. We estimated the divergence time of the main groups in Tetraodontiformes. Our hypothesis of internal relationships within the genus differs from previous hypothesis. Our results indicated that (1) Tetraodontiformes is a monophyletic group; (2) we brought forward a more clearly phylogeny of the group in molecular level; (3) with respect to the divergence times obtained, the origin of the Tetraodontiformes estimated here is about 97.99~103.42Myr.
Pages152
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12110
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张玉波. 鲀形目(硬骨鱼纲,鲀形目)鱼类若干类群的分子系统发育及分化时间估算[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.
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