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题名: 微囊藻毒素的生态学和毒理学研究
作者: 李嗣新
答辩日期: 2007-06-12
导师: 谢平
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 微囊藻毒素 ; 星云湖 ; 季节变化 ; ; 腹腔注射 ; 组织分布
其他题名: Ecological and toxicological studies on microcystins
摘要: 微囊藻毒素是一类由蓝藻产生的具有肝毒性的生物毒素。本研究主要分为两个部分,微囊藻毒素的生态学研究和毒理学研究。 第一部分是对亚热带高原湖泊星云湖的微囊藻毒素的野外调查研究,主要包括胞内毒素、胞外毒素和藻细胞毒素含量的季节变化,并讨论理化和生物因子对微囊藻毒素的动力学影响以及这些变化下可能存在的机制。主要结果如下: 1. 相关分析表明星云湖微囊藻的产毒与N(TDN和NO3-N)含量和适宜的温度(20-25℃)有关。 2. 湖水中总MC的含量(胞外毒素 + 胞内毒素)和藻细胞毒素含量与生物量乘积之间具有显著正相关性关系,湖水中MC的含量可能受到水体中产毒藻类生物量和产毒藻细胞毒素含量的共同调控,而且影响藻细胞产毒的因子不一定会影响产毒藻细胞的生物量。 3. 星云湖中MC含量最大值高达41.42 µg l-1,比目前世界其他区域爆发微囊藻水华的湖泊水体中的最高含量还要高。因此,为了减少蓝藻毒素暴露对水生动物和人类的危害,控制星云湖微囊藻毒素的污染和已成为一个亟待解决的问题。 第二部分是研究腹腔注射条件下微囊藻毒素在鳙中的各组织器官分布和净化规律的室内实验,并和以前不同食性鱼类的毒性实验相比较来讨论这些变化下可能存在的抗毒和解毒机制。主要研究结果如下: 1. 本次急性中毒实验通过向腹腔注射两种不同剂量的粗提的MC抽提液(200和500 μg MC-LReq.kg–1 BW)的方法,用HPLC–MS首次测定了微囊藻毒素在暖水性浮游植物食性鳙鱼的各个组织器官分布情况。MC含量在肾脏中最高(0.094 - 4.641 μg g-1 DW),其次是胆囊(0.328 – 2.474 μg g-1 DW)、肠道(0.014 – 0.751 μg g-1 DW)、肌肉(0.008 – 0.106 μg g-1 DW)和脾脏(0 – 0.017 μg g-1 DW)。 2. 结果表明MC在胆囊中的降解似乎比其他器官要难。肾脏中较高的MC含量表明肾脏有可能转运MC并将其解毒。鱼缸中含有大量的MC-LR和极少量的MC-RR以及肠道和其他器官中的相当低MC-LR含量表明鳙鱼能强烈抑制MC-LR的转运。MC-LR的净化似乎在肠道就完成了而MC-RR是在进入血液之后被肝解毒。
英文摘要: Microcystins are a kind of hepatotoxic cyanotoxin. This study mainly contains two parts, ecology and toxicology of microcystins. The first part is a field survey of microcystins in Lake Xingyun, a subtropical plateau lake in China. Seasonal variations of dissolved MC, MC in seston and algal blooms were studied, and the effects of physico-chemical and biological factors on MC dynamics were discussed to evaluate on the possible mechanisms underlying these variations. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Correlation analysis suggested that the production of Microcystis in Lake Xingyun was correlated with N content (such as TN and TDN) and optimum temperature (between 20 and 25℃). 2. Significant linear relationship between total MC (dissolved MC + MC in seston) and the product of MC in algal blooms and Microcystis biomass suggested that MC concentration is regulated by both the biomass of toxin-producing phytoplankton in the water column and the concentration of MC produced per unit mass of these phytoplankton, and that factors affecting MC production are not necessarily the same with those affecting the biomass of the toxin-producing phytoplankton. 3. In Lake Xingyun, the maximum MC concentration reached as high as 42.12 µg l-1 during the warm season and was considerably higher than those of Microcystis blooms in other regions of the world. It is urgently needed to monitor MC pollution in Lake Xingyun and to reduce the exposure risk of cyanobacterial toxins to both aquatic animals and human beings. The second part is a laboratory study on tissue distribution and deputation of microcystins in bighead carp via intraperitoneal injection. The possible mechanisms underlying these patterns in comparison with other fishes of different feeding modes were also discussed. The results were summarized as follows: 1. This is the first to report MC contents (by HPLC–MS) in various organs of warm–water planktivorous bighead carp via intraperitoneal injection with two different doses, 200 and 500 μg MC-LReq.kg-1 BW. The highest level of MC was found in the kidney (0.094 - 4.641 μg g-1 DW), followed by the gallbladder (0.328 – 2.474 μg g-1 DW), intestine (0.014 – 0.751 μg g-1 DW), muscle (0.008 - 0.106 μg g-1 DW) and spleen (0 - 0.017 μg g-1 DW). 2. Our results suggested that the clearance of MC in gallbladder seems more difficult than other organs and kidney may have capacity to transport microcystin. Most MC-LR but a small quantity of MC-RR in the aquaria water and rather low MC-LR content in the intestine and other organs indicated that the intestine of bighead carp can severely inhibit the transportation of MC-LR. It seems that elimination of MC-LR likely occurred at the intestine while MC-RR degraded in the liver after entering the blood system.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12096
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
微囊藻毒素的生态学和毒理学研究.李嗣新[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2007.20-25
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