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题名: 受污染水体沉水植物轮叶黑藻恢复的若干生理生态学问题研究
作者: 赵强
答辩日期: 2006-06-18
导师: 吴振斌
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 受污染水体 ; 逆境胁迫 ; 生理生态特性 ; 轮叶黑藻 ; 恢复
其他题名: STUDIES ON SEVERAL UNSOLOVED PHYSIO-ECOLOGICAL QUESTIONS FOR RESTORATION OF SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) ROYLE IN POLLUTED WATERBODIES
摘要: 高等水生植物的恢复是受污染水体中生态修复的关键。水生植物的生长受到水温、光照条件、pH值、水中营养盐含量、溶解氧和多种环境污染物等因素的影响。沉水植物的生活周期都在水体中,生理上极端依赖于水环境,因而对水质条件的变化更加敏感。本研究以沉水植物轮叶黑藻为研究对象,针对上述问题,进行了沉水植物黑藻在不同环境因子条件下的生理生态学特性变化研究,主要研究结果如下: 1、在不同浓度的氨氮、硝态氮、磷、氨氮与磷复合、硝态氮与磷复合等急性胁迫(3d)作用下,黑藻生理指标产生了相应的变化。在1.25mg/L的氨氮作用下,黑藻基本正常生长,甚至对生长有一定的促进作用,只是在浓度达到5 mg/L时,才对黑藻生理活动产生胁迫,抑制作用明显。在氨氮+磷浓度为5+0.75mg/L时,SOD受到抑制,而在20+3mg/L时,SOD甚至失活。氨氮与磷复合处理比氨氮单独处理时对黑藻的毒害效应明显。在硝态氮、磷胁迫及其复合作用下,均是在较高浓度作用下才对光合作用产生胁迫作用。表明,不同浓度硝态氮、磷和硝态氮与磷复合处理对黑藻的毒害抑制作用不严重,即使是在高浓度下,毒害程度应仍然不明显。 2、十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)对黑藻SOD的胁迫伤害作用大于多聚磷酸钠(STPP),在3d的实验中,黑藻对SDBS的耐受浓度相对较低,为8mg/L;黑藻对STPP的耐受浓度较高,达256mg/L,黑藻POD对STPP胁迫较为敏感,CAT、SOD对 STPP反应不敏感。黑藻对SDBS和STPP复合胁迫的耐受浓度达到32+64 mg/L,STPP降低了SDBS对黑藻细胞的胁迫伤害。黑藻对SDBS和STPP的耐受浓度均高于自然环境中的浓度,即受污染水体中,SDBS和STPP不会对黑藻的正常生长产生明显的抑制。 并且在不同浓度SDBS作用下,在16h: 8h光暗周期条件时,2、8mg/L的SDBS对黑藻植株增长、植株分根有促进作用,在32mg/L处理下,黑藻植株增长受到抑制,并且生物量降低。12h:12h光暗周期条件下,2mg/L处理下,SDBS对黑藻植株增长、生物量积累、植株分根有一定促进作用,在8mg/L和32mg/L处理下,则有抑制作用。8h:16h光暗周期条件下,SDBS对株长增长、株重增加有抑制作用,并随着浓度升高抑制加强;而对黑藻植株分根、分枝影响不大。表明,在SDBS作用下,相对较长时间的光照射,光合作用的光反应时间长于暗反应时间,这在一定程度上能够降低SDBS所带来的胁迫效应,在某些方面,甚至促进黑藻生长。 3、在相对较强的光照条件(100%光照)下,黑藻对硝态氮、氨氮、总磷、无机磷、CODCr等的吸收或去除能力较强。而在相对较弱(30%和15%的光照)的光照条件下,黑藻对总氮、亚硝态氮、BOD5等的吸收或去除能力较强。光照强度越强,植株分株能力、根的生物量积累越强,植株向上生长的能力越弱;随着光照强度的减弱,植株重量逐渐增加。 4、通过研究发现,以生物量积累为指标衡量时,中性和偏碱性的水体环境对黑藻的生长有一定的促进作用。在不同重金属作用下,黑藻也表现出一定的变化规律。50mg/L的Pb对黑藻植株增长、生物量的积累、营养繁殖能力有明显的促进作用,100mg/L处理下黑藻植株增长、生物量的积累、营养繁殖能力、植株分根则相对受到抑制。黑藻对Cr较为敏感,并且较低浓度(5mg/L)的Cr就能对黑藻生长产生不良影响,均对黑藻植株的增长、生物量增加、营养繁殖有抑制作用。0.5mg/L 的Hg对黑藻植株长度、黑藻植株分根有促进作用,而在大于1mg/L时,黑藻生长受到抑制。 5、在相对较强的光照条件(100%光照)下,黑藻对硝态氮、氨氮、总磷、无机磷、CODCr等的吸收或去除能力较强。而在相对较弱(30%和15%的光照)的光照条件下,黑藻对总氮、亚硝态氮、BOD5等的吸收或去除能力较强。 6、在短时间(24h)内,黑藻对PCP存在较为明显的吸附作用。随着处理时间的延长,黑藻对PCP吸附能力缓慢增加,但随着时间进一步延长(96h),黑藻对PCP的吸附作用有所降低。随着黑藻生物量的加倍,培养液中的PCP浓度降幅约增加一倍。 通过本研究表明,在多种不良环境条件下(即略高于受污染水体中的污染物浓度以及相对较弱的光照等条件下)轮叶黑藻仍然可以正常生长,而不至于对其生理活动产生严重的影响和制约,表明轮叶黑藻对环境污染具有较强的适应性和耐受性,这些研究结果为在受污染水体中大规模成功恢复沉水植物轮叶黑藻的实践工作提供了必要的理论依据和技术支撑。
英文摘要: Restoration of aquatic vegetation was one of the most important steps of ecosystem rehabilitation in polluted waterbodies. But the restoration of aquatic vegetation is difficult because the growth of the aquatic vegetation was effected by many factors, such as, water temperature, light, pH, nutrient, dissolve oxygen and environmental pollutants. Submerged macrophytes physiologically depended more on water environment than other aquatic plant, so they were more sensitive to the change of water quality. Therefore, submerged macrophyte, Hydrilla verticillata (L.f) Royle, was chosen to study its physio-ecological response to different environmental factors. Major results are as follows: 1.Under the treatments of increased NH4+-N, NO3--N, PO43--P concentrations, NH4+-N & PO43--P and NO3--N & PO43--P combination, the physiological character of the activities of POD and CAT and SOD and content of chlorophyll and biomass and productivity of H. verticillata had some relevant changes. The activities of POD and CAT had slight changes when [NH4+-N] is 1.25mg/L. The treatment of 5 mg/L [NH4+-N] partially restrained the growth of H. verticillata. The treatment of 5+0.75 mg/L [NH4+-N + PO43--P] decreased the activity of SOD, and the treatment of 20+3 mg/L [NH4+-N + PO43--P] eliminated SOD. The toxic symptoms of the plant were more serious caused by [NH4+-N & PO43--P] combination than by NH4+-N. Under the treatments of NO3--N, PO43--P and NO3--N & PO43--P combination, photosynthesis of H. verticillata was only restrained at the high concentration, indicating that the toxicities caused by these treatments were not serious. 2.The maximum tolerable concentration of SDBS and STPP of H. verticillata was 8mg/L, 256 mg/L , indicting that Sodium Dodecylbenzene-Sulfonate (SDBS) damaged SOD more than Sodium Tripo1yphosphate (STPP). POD was sensitive to STPP but CAT was insensitive. Under the combination of SDBS and STPP, the tolerable SDBS and STPP concentration of H. verticillata were 32 mg/L and 64 mg/L, respectively, indicating that STPP decreased the negative effect of SDBS in H. verticillata. Under 16h/8h day-night cycle, the shoot lengths and the number of branches of H. verticillata increased in 2 and 8 mg/L SDBS, and the stem lengths and its biomass decreased in 32 mg/L SDBS. Under 12h/12h day-night cycle, the stem lengths and the biomass of stems and the sum of branches of H. verticillata increased in 2 mg/L SDBS, and the growths of H. verticillata were restricted in 8 and 32 mg/L SDBS. Under 8h/16h day-night cycle, all concentration of SDBS restrained the growth of the length and biomass. Also the ability of restraining function was gradually increasing with the increase of SDBS stress concentration. 3.Under full-sun, the removal effect of H. verticillata to NO3--N, NH4+-N, TP, IP, CODCr were markedly, and under 30% and 15% full-sun, the removal effects of H. verticillata for Total-N, NO2--N, BOD5 were significant. Numbers of branches and the root biomass increased with increasing light intensities, while elongation and the shoot biomass decreased. 4. The neutral water environment and the alkalescent water environment and the relative short light time all helped to the growth of H. verticillata. When H. verticillata was dealt with the different heavy metal, the stem lengths and the biomass of stems and the sum of branches of H. verticillata had obvious increase in 50 mg/L Pb, and the growths of H. verticillata were restricted in 100 mg/L. the stem lengths and the sum of roots of H. verticillata had obvious increase in 0.5 mg/L Hg, and the growths of H. verticillata were restricted beyond 1 mg/L. H. verticillata was sensitive to the stress of Cr and the lower concentration stress, 5 mg/L, can restrict the growth. 5. The POD isoenzyme’s strip and shade of H. verticillata were changed under the different concentration of SDBS, STPP and SDBS & STPP combined and NH4+-N, NO3--N, PO43--P, NH4+-N & PO43--P combined and NO3--N & PO43--P combined in a certain extent. 6. H. verticillata had obvious sorption to pentachlorophenol (PCP) at beginning of the experiment (24h), but the ability of sorption was reducing with extend of time (96h).
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/12046
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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受污染水体沉水植物轮叶黑藻恢复的若干生理生态学问题研究.赵强[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2006.20-25
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