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题名: 鳋科和锚头鳋科寄生桡足类的系统发育
作者: 宋英
答辩日期: 2006-06-30
导师: 聂品
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 寄生桡足类 ; 鳋科 ; 锚头鳋科 ; 鳋属 ; 中华鳋属 ; 新种 ; 丹江鳋 ; 分子系统 ; 协同进化 ; 18S rDNA ; 28S rDNA ; ITS rDNA
其他题名: phylogenetic study of parasitic copepods in the Ergasilidae and Lernaeidae on freshwater fish in China
摘要: 鳋科与锚头鳋科是危害我国淡水养殖鱼类的两大主要寄生桡足类,本论文利用分子生物学的方法对鳋科和锚头鳋科的寄生鳋类进行了系统发育分析,并通过分析鳋科中华鳋属三种中华鳋与其宿主的协同进化关系,探讨中华鳋物种的形成机制。 以18S、28S和18S-28S rDNA的联合片段为遗传标记研究鳋科4属共14种和锚头鳋科2属3种鳋之间的系统发育关系,支持鳋科和锚头鳋科为单系。在鳋科内部,中华鳋属与三指鳋属为单系,鳋属为复系,除了掘凿鳋和雅鲁藏布鳋的进化位置不十分明确外,所有的结果都支持将整个鳋科分为三个大类群,中华鳋属-鳋属类群为中华鳋属和鳋属的固着鳋,假鳋属-鳋属类群为假鳋属和部分鳋属的种类,三指鳋属-鳋属类群为三指鳋属和鳋属的奇异鳋。不同的是以18S rDNA为标记用最大似然法、邻接法和贝叶斯法建树的结果都支持中华鳋属-鳋属类群与假鳋属-鳋属类群的亲缘关系更近些,以28S rDNA为遗传标记支持假鳋属-鳋属类群与三指鳋属-鳋属类群的亲缘关系更近些,根据寄生桡足类的演化规律从半寄生到完全寄生状态,18S rDNA的建树结果更支持这一结论。Kishino-Hasegawa检验的结果支持将掘凿鳋和奇异鳋归为假鳋属-鳋属类群的假设,不支持将固着鳋归为假鳋属-鳋属类群的假设。在锚头鳋科内部,以28S rDNA为标记用最大似然法、邻接法和贝叶斯法建树的结果都支持狭腹鳋属为单系。 以部分18S rDNA序列为遗传标记进行寄生桡足类和自由生活桡足类的系统发育研究,支持杯口水蚤目、剑水蚤目、管口水虱目、猛水蚤目和哲水蚤目为单系。经典支序分类支持管口水虱目与怪水蚤亚目先形成姊妹群,然后与杯口水蚤目聚在一起,而剑水蚤目与上述三目的亲缘关系较远些,本实验用三种建树方法所建成的树都支持杯口水蚤目和剑水蚤目的亲缘关系更近,然后与管口水虱目的种类聚在一起,说明管口水虱目、杯口水蚤目和剑水蚤目有共同的祖先。另外,分子进化分析的结果也支持锚头鳋科应归为剑水蚤目,鱼虱科应归为管口水虱目。 为了探讨中华鳋的分子系统进化关系和物种形成机制,将采自鲢、鳙上的鲢中华鳋,草鱼、青鱼、鳡、赤眼鳟、马口鱼上的大中华鳋和鲤、鲫上的鲤中华鳋及黄颡鱼上的外类群鲶假鳋,以核糖体内转录间隔区(ITS)为遗传标记建立中华鳋属内种间以及中华鳋属与假鳋属之间的系统进化关系,建树结果表明中华鳋属与假鳋属应为独立的属,大中华鳋与鲢中华鳋的进化关系更近些。同时,还以ITS为遗传标记建立采自同一湖泊草鱼、鲢、鲤的90个中华鳋个体之间的进化关系。ITS序列变异分析结果表明三种中华鳋种群内的变异程度为0.28-0.51%,种群间的变异程度9.65-10.81%,支持中华鳋属三个种为独立的种。建树结果表明中华鳋有严格的宿主特异性,同时也支持大中华鳋和鲢中华鳋的亲缘关系更近些。 建立三种中华鳋与其9种鱼类宿主的协同进化关系,表明鲤中华鳋是与鲤亚科鱼类共同物种形成(co-speciation)的结果,鲢中华鳋和大中华鳋可能是古老的鲤中华鳋同时寄生到鲢亚科和雅罗鱼亚科的鱼类上,然后分化成两个不同的种群。 另外,在我国湖北省丹江口水库的鱼类寄生虫调查中从马口鱼和宽鳍鱲上获得了鳋属一新种丹江鳋。与我国鳋属其它鳋相比,丹江鳋形态上一个典型的特征就是第二触肢的第二节外缘呈明显的弧形,这与膨大鳋的第二触肢比较相似。以ITS和部分28S rDNA序列为标记进行进化分析,支持丹江鳋为一独立的新种,尽管变异分析表明丹江鳋与膨大鳋(ITS 为4.6%;28S为1.6%)和博氏鳋(ITS 为5.4%;28S为1.8%)之间的变异水平比较低。
英文摘要: Copepods in the Ergasilidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) and Lernaeidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) are two major groups of parasitic copepods on freshwater fish. The present study aimed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationship among species in the families Ergasilidae and Lernaeidae, and to understand the phylogenetic relationship among three species in the Sinergasilus (Ergasilidae) with the analysis of the Sinergasilus-host co-evolutionary relationship. A total of 14 species belonging to 4 genera in the Ergasilidae and 3 species to 2 genera in the Lernaeidae were obtained from 24 species of fish in China, and the 18S, 28S rDNA sequences were cloned from the collected parasitic copepods. Phylogenetic analyses using partial 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences and combined 18S-28S rDNA sequences suggested that both Ergasilidae and Lernaeidae are monophyletic. In the Ergasilidae, the genera Sinergasilus and Paraergasilus are monophyletic, and Ergasilus is paraphyletic. Except the uncertain position of E. scalaris and E. yaluzangbus, copepods in the Ergasilidae can be further separated into three main clades, i.e. the Sinergasilus-Eragsilus clade including species in the Sinergasilus and E. anchoratus in the Ergasilus, the Pseudergasilus-Ergasilus clade including P. parasiluri in the Pseudergasilus and some in the Ergasilus, and the Paraergasilus-Ergasilus clade including species of Paraergasilus and E. peregrinus in the Ergasilus. All the three trees generated by using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joinning and Bayesian inference methods support the Pseudergasilus-Ergasilus clade has a closer phylogenetic relationship with the Sinergasilus-Eragsilus clade based on 18S rDNA,and a closer relationship with the Paraergasilus-Ergasilus clade based on 28S rDNA sequences. The evolutionary rule of parasitic copepods always from half-parasitism to complete parasitism supported the results based on 18S rDNA. Kishino-Hasegawa tests based on either likelihood method or parsimony method supported the null hypotheses that E. scalaris and E. peregrinus were confined to group Pseudergasilus-Ergasilus, and rejected the hypothesis that E. anchoratus was confined to group Pseudergasilus-Ergasilus. In the Lernaeidae, the subfamily Lamprogleninae was monophyletic, as revealed by the maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference methods based on 28S rDNA sequences, which is consistent with the morphology taxonomy. The phylogenetic relationship was also examined between parasitic copepods and free-living copepods from five orders in the subclass Copepoda based on partial 18S rDNA sequences. The cladistic analysis based on morphological characters showed that Siphonostomatoida formed a sister-lineage with Monstrilloida, then clustered with Poecilostomatoida, while Cyclopoida showed no closer relationship with any of the three orders, while the present study supported the sister-lineage of Poecilostomatoida and Cyclopoida, which then were clustered with Siponostomatoida. It is suggested that the Poecilostomatoida and Cyclopoida have a closer relationship, furthermore, Poecilostomatoida, Cyclopoida and Siphonostomatoida might have originated from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic study also showed that Lernaeidae and Caligiade should belong to Cyclopoida and Siponostomatoida, respectively. In order to resolve the phylogenetic relationship among the three species in the Sinergasilus and the mechanisms involved in their speciation on their nine species of fish hosts, three species in the Sinergasilus species were obtained to construct the phylogenetic trees based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, i.e. S. polycolpus, S. major and S. undulatus, from two speices of host fish, i.e. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis, five speices of fish, i.e. Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Elopichthys bambusa, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Opsariichthys bidens, and two species Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, respectively. All the trees generated showed that S. polycolpus and S. major had a closer relationship. Meanwhile, thirty specimens each for the three species in the Sinergasilus were obtained from C. idellus, H. molitrix and C. carpio in a same lake. It is revealed that the variation in the ITS sequences was among 0.28~0.51% for individuals within a given species, while the variation ranged among 9.65~10.81% at the species level based on the combined ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Phylogenetic relationship of the 90 copepod individuals also supported that S. polycolpus and S. major had a closer relationship. The coevolutionary trees were constructed by using partial cyt b sequences for the nine species of fish and by using whole ITS sequences for the three species of copepods. It is demonstrated that S. undulatus might have cospeciated with their Cyprininae hosts earlier, and S. polycolpus and S. major, might cospeciate with their Hypophthalmichthyinae and Leuciscinae hosts, respectively later. In addition, during the investigation of parasites in freshwater fish in Danjiangkou Reservoir, Hubei Province, China, a new species named as Ergasilus danjiangensis was found on gills of Opsariichthys bidens and Zacco platypus. Morphological observation shows that E. danjiangensis is characteristic of prominent arc outer edge on the second segment of antenna, which is similar to E. tumidus. Molecular studies based on ITS and 28S rDNA sequences also support that E. danjiangensis is an independent and new species, although the divergence level between E. danjiangensis and E. braini (4.6% for ITS; 1.6% for 28S rDNA) is not high, nor between E. danjiangensis and E. tumidus (5.4% for ITS; 1.8% for 28S rDNA).
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/11992
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
鳋科和锚头鳋科寄生桡足类的系统发育.宋英[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2006.20-25
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