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题名: 官厅水库(北京段)水质、水生生物评价及恢复管理
作者: 潘勇
答辩日期: 2009-06-01
导师: 曹文宣
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 官厅水库 ; 水质 ; 水生生物 ; 富营养化 ; 生态系统健康 ; 评价 ; 恢复管理
其他题名: Water quality and biological assessment of the Guanting reservoir and the recovering management strategies
摘要: 官厅水库是我国建国后修建的第一座大型水库,是我国首都北京的重要供水水源地之一。近年因水质污染被迫退出首都供水。目前北京的水资源短缺的问题日益严重,恢复官厅水库水质,重新发挥其供水功能是北京市政府近年来的重点工程。 为了解目前官厅水库水质、水生生物资源现状,保护和恢复官厅水库水质,本文于2007年连续12个月对官厅水库(北京段)的水化学、水生生物资源情况进行了调查。并在此基础上从水化、生物、生态系统健康三个方面评价了官厅水库目前水质及水生环境情况,并提出了恢复管理措施。主要研究结果如下。 1.官厅水库(北京段)由橡胶坝分成3个水域,从上游到下游依次为莲花湖、妫水西湖和妫水库区,整个面积2266hm2 。水深1.5~4m;水温平均14.8℃;透明度0.2~0.9m;pH变化范围在8.28~11.39,水呈偏碱性;水质属于碳酸盐型、镁组、Ⅱ型水。 2.目前官厅水库水质主要问题是TN、TP超标和蓝藻水华爆发。TN均值2.22 mg/L ,其中妫水西湖3.65mg/L、莲花湖1.51 mg/L、大库1.29 mg/L;TP均值0.26 mg/L,其中妫水西湖0.43mg/L、莲花湖0.14 mg/L、大库0.16mg/L。根据地面水环境质量标准(GB3838~2002),妫水西湖属于劣Ⅴ类水,莲花湖和大库属于Ⅳ~Ⅴ类水。 3.共采集到8门、158种属的浮游植物。从种类组成上看绿藻门、硅藻门、蓝藻门占优势;密度上以蓝藻门、硅藻门、绿藻门占优势。浮游植物密度平均9300×104个/L,生物量平均60mg/L。妫水西湖的年均值(11500×104个/L~14000×104个/L;55 mg/L~78mg/L)最高,莲花湖(8500×104个/L;52 mg/L)次之,大库最低(6000×104个/L~9000×104个/L;35 mg/L~75 mg/L)。浮游植物生物量在夏季最高,其次为秋季,而冬季相对较低。铜绿微囊藻是官厅水库(北京段)的最主要优势种,出现在5月~10月,尤其是7~8月,铜绿微囊藻占浮游植物总数量的50%以上。 4.浮游动物共见到100个种属,其中原生动物40种,轮虫45种,枝角类4种,桡足类11种。浮游动物密度平均为3256个/L,生物量平均为3.14mg/L。浮游动物群落组成趋向小型化,轮虫数量占浮游动物总数量的80%以上,成为绝对优势类群,只在冬季稍低。角突臂尾轮虫、螺形龟甲轮虫、针簇多肢轮虫等典型富营养水体指示种是主要优势种。 5.底栖动物共检到43种,隶属4门24科42属,其中环节动物5种,节肢动物27种,软体动物10种,线形动物1种。密度平均2062个/m2,生物量平均254 g/m2。按照底栖动物密度的水平分布大库最高(5037个/m2),莲花湖次之(928个/m2),妫水西湖最低(221个/m2);根据底栖动物的生物量,莲花湖最高(720 g/m2),大库次之(39.80 g/m2),妫水西湖最低(1.19 g/m2)。从季节分布看,11~12月密度或生物量较高,而6~9月密度或生物量相对较低。以霍甫水丝蚓、刺铗长足摇蚊、大红德永摇蚊等典型富营养水体指示种为优势种。 6.共发现12目18科23属27种大型水生植物。在大库,全年有两个优势种,为菹草和穗花狐尾藻,无挺水植物。在妫水西湖,有少量挺水植物,未发现沉水植物。在莲花湖,有沉水植物菹草。 7.共采集到6目13科26属27种鱼类,其中鲢、鳙是优势类群。近年为治理官厅水库富营养化,水库管理部门投放鲢、鳙。但妫水西湖等水域依然连续多年发生微囊藻水华,投放鲢、鳙控制水华工作未收到明显效果,因此对于官厅水库放养鱼类问题还应进一步研究探讨。 8.在官厅水库水质富营养化评价方面,对比了各种水质物理化学指标评价结果和生物方法评价结果,采用浮游植物、轮虫以及底栖动物指示种和浮游植物密度生物量、浮游动物和底栖动物结构组成评价结果与水化学评价结果一致性较高,采用多样性指数方法评价多数情况下不理想。 9.首次建立了官厅水库生态系统健康评价指标体系,包括3个评价要素,涵盖了11个具体指标。采用层次分析法和模糊数学综合评价法评价官厅水库健康状态为中等偏下水平。总体来说官厅水库生态系统健康状况在逐渐下降,主要原因是水库水量的减少和富营养化的加剧。 10.针对官厅水库水质现状主要问题是N、P超标、蓝藻水华严重,原因是外源和内源污染以及水量少、缺少水交换,提出了控制减少内、外源P、N含量,尤其是P含量、加强水交换、适当暴晒底泥、控制鱼类放养等基于全流域的官厅水库水质恢复管理系列对策。
英文摘要: Guanting reservoir is the first large reservoir built in China, which is also an important water supply for Beijing. It quitted from water supply system due to water pollution in recent years. Since water shortage problem in Beijing is becoming more and more serious,recovering the water quality and restarting its water supply function becomes a key project of the central government . In order to assess the water quality and the status of hydrobiological resource in Guanting reservoir, and to protect and recover its water quality, a continuous monthly investigation of water chemistry and hydrobiological resource in it (Beijing region) was conducted in 2007. Evaluations upon water quality and water environment was carried out based on water chemistry, biology and ecological system. Administrative measures were also proposed. The results are as following: Guanting reservoir (Beijing region) is divided into three parts by Xiangjiao dam, which are lotus Lake, west lake and weishui reservoir, with an area of 2266hm2,the water depth of 1.5~4m, the average temperature of 14.8℃, and SD of 0.2~0.9m, pH of 8.28~11.39. The water is alkalescence, and belongs to carbonate type, magnesium group, Ⅱ. The main problem for water quality in Guanting reservoir was the unattainment of N、P and cyanobacterial bloom. The average value of TN was 2.22 mg/L, of which, value of west lake was 3.65mg/L, Lotus Lake 1.51 mg/L, weishui reservoir 1.29 mg/L. The average value of TP was 0.26 mg/L,of which, value of west lake was 0.43mg/L, Lotus Lake 0.14 mg/L, weishui reservoir 0.16mg/L. According to the ground water quality standard(GB3838~2002), West lake belongs to inferior V type, while Lotus lake and weishui reservoir belong to Ⅳ~Ⅴ type. Eight phylum and 158 genus of phytoplankton were collected.Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta were predominant in species, while Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta were predominant in density. The average density of phytoplankton was 93,000,000inds/L, and the average biomass of it 60mg/L.Values in west lake (115,000,000inds/L~140,000,000inds/L;55 mg/L~78mg/L)was the highest, Lotus lake (85,000,000inds/L;52 mg/L)the second, and weishui reservoir (60,000,000inds/L~90,000,000inds/L;35 mg/L~75 mg/L)the lowest. The highest biomass of phytoplankton was in summer, the second in autumn, then in winter. Microcystis aeruginosa was the most predominant species in Guanting reservoir(Beijing section),with a percentage over 50% of the total number, Which appeared in May to October, particularly in July and August. There were 100 genera of zooplankton, of which, 40 species protozoa,45 species rotifer, 4 species cladocera, and 11 species copepods. The average density of zooplankton was 3256inds/L, and that of biomass 3.14mg/L.The composition of zooplankton tended to be miniaturization. Number of rotifer accounts for over 80% of the total species, being the predominant population, which was less only in winter. Brachionus angularis, Keratella cochlearis and Polyarthra trigla etc, the typical indicator species in eutrophication water,were the main predominant species in Guanting reservoir. Forty three species of zoobenthos were found, which belonged to 4 phylum 24 families 42 genus. Among them, 5 species annelid, 27 species arthropod, 10 species mollusk, and 1 species nemathelminthes. The average density was 2062inds/m2, the average biomass 254 g/m2.For horizontal distribution of average density of zoobenthos, the tiptop was in weishui reservoir(5037inds/m2), then the Lotus lake(720 g/m2),and west lake(221inds/m2)being the lowest. For biomass, the highest value was in Lotus lake(720 g/m2),then the weishui reservoir(39.80 g/m 2),then west lake(1.19 g/m2).For seasonal variation, density and biomass in November and December were the highest, which were relatively lower from June to September. The typical indicator species in eutrophication water, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri clapareda, Tanypus punctipennis, and Tokunagayusurika akamusi were predominant species. Twenty seven species of macrophytes were found. There were two dominant species in weishui reservoir, Potamogeton crispus linn and Myriophyllum spicatum , no emergent plants were found. In west lake, there was a few emergent plants, no submergent plants appeared. Submergent plant Potamogeton crispus linn existed in Lotus lake. Six orders 13 families 26 genera 27 species of fish were collected. Among them, Silver carp and big head carp possessed the most biomass, which were stocked into the reservoir by the reservoir administrative department to treat the eutrophication problem. However, the problem of continuous fish farming in Guanting reservior needs further discussion. Results of different physiochemical index evaluation and biology assessement were compared. Results of combining phytoplankton,rotifer,zoobenthos, density and biomass of phytoplankton, composition of zooplankton and zoobenthos were more consistent with water chemistry assessment. Evaluation of species diversity index were not often ideal. Ecological system healthy assessment was employed for the first time in Guanting reservoir, which included 3 elements, covering 11 specific index. The reservoir was evaluated as in the state of sub-health assessed by analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematics comprehensive assessment. In general, the healthy status of ecological system in Guanting reservoir was declining, due to the decrease of the water quantity and the acuity of eutrophication. The main problem for water quality in Guanting reservoir was the unattainment of N、P and cyanobacterial bloom, which was due to external and internal pollution, small water quantity and lack of water exchange. Overall water quality recovery administrative strategies were suggested.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/11988
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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官厅水库(北京段)水质、水生生物评价及恢复管理.潘勇[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2009.20-25
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