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云南高原湖泊外来鱼类和土著鱼类生理生态学的比较研究
Alternative TitleComparative studies on the physiological ecology of exotic and native fishes in lakes of the Yunnan Plateau
贾艳菊
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor陈毅峰
2005-06-29
Degree Grantor中国科学院水生生物研究所
Place of Conferral水生生物研究所
Keyword外来鱼类 土著鱼类 生理生态 生物入侵 湖泊 云南高原
Abstract本实验以抚仙湖外来鱼类Hemiculter leucisculus与土著鱼类鱇鱼良白鱼、星云湖外来鱼类鲤与土著鱼类大头鲤作为主要研究对象,比较了这四种鱼类的生长特性、对富营养化的适应能力和营养物质的利用特点。实验的结果和结论如下:   1.Hemiculter leucisculus的特定生长率和鱇鱼良白鱼没有显著差异,但饵料利用能力低于鱇鱼良白鱼;与对照组相比,中、高营养状态水体中Hemiculter leucisculus的特定生长率、摄食率、饵料转化效率、蛋白贮积率和能量贮积率的增加率均低于鱇鱼良白鱼,或者降低率高于鱇鱼良白鱼。实验结果表明水体的高营养状态对Hemiculter leucisculus的生长所造成的负面影响较大,在生长特性方面,Hemiculter leucisculus对水体富营养化的适应能力低于鱇鱼良白鱼。   2.Hemiculter leucisculus对水霉病的抵抗能力高于鱇鱼良白鱼,水体的较高营养状态可以降低鱇鱼良白鱼抗水霉病的能力;由此揭示在抗水霉病能力方面,Hemiculter leucisculus对富营养化的适应能力高于鱇鱼良白鱼。   3.随着水体营养状态的提高,Hemiculter leucisculus和鱇鱼良白鱼肝脏中的谷草转氨酶、谷丙转氨酶和乳酸脱氢酶活性均逐渐降低;与对照组相比,高营养状态水体组Hemiculter leucisculus谷草转氨酶、谷丙转氨酶和乳酸脱氢酶活性的降低率均高于鱇鱼良白鱼。实验结果说明富营养化在一定程度上损害了Hemiculter leucisculus和鱇鱼良白鱼的肝脏功能;在肝功能方面,Hemiculter leucisculus对水体富营养化的适应能力低于鱇鱼良白鱼。   4.鲤的生长速度高于大头鲤;鲤的氮收支和能量收支模式不同于大头鲤,鲤生长氮分配率、蛋白质表观生物学效价、生长能分配率和能量的生长效率均高于大头鲤;二者在氮收支和能量收支上的差异表明,鲤对饵料蛋白和能量的利用能力高于大头鲤。 5.鲤和大头鲤在生长速度和饵料利用能力上的差异受到温度的影响,在低温水体中差异幅度较大;实验揭示低温对大头鲤的摄食、生长和饵料利用能力的负面影响较大,鲤比大头鲤更适应低温。
Other AbstractPhysiological ecology of exotic and native fishes in lakes of the Yunnan Plateau was comparatively studied in a series of experiments. Four species were selected as the experimental fishes: Hemiculter leucisculus and Anabarilius grahami (the exotic and native fishes for Lake Fuxian respectively), and Cyprinus carpio and Cyprinus pellegrini (the exotic and native fishes for Lake Xingyun respectively). Between those exotic and native fishes, difference in growth, the adaptation to eutrphication and the characteristics of nutrient utilization were compared. The main results were following: 1. There was no significant difference in growth rate between H. leucisculus and A. grahami, but A. grahami had the advantage in food utilization over H. leucisculus. The percentages increase over control in feeding rate, growth rate, food conversion efficiency, protein retention efficiency and energy retention efficiency of H. leucisculus reared in the moderate and high trophic status water were lower than those of A. grahami reared in the same type of water, or the percentages decrease over control in those parameters of H. leucisculus were higher than those of A. grahami. Those results show that the higher trophic status of water has more negative effects on the growth of H. leucisculus, and that the capability of H. leucisculus to adapt to eutrophication is lower than that of A. grahami in respect of growth. 2. Saprolegniasis resistance of H. leucisculus was higher than that of A. grahami;the higher trophic status of water could reduce the resistance to Saprolegniasis of A. grahami. Those results indicate the eutrophication adaptation capability of H. leucisculus is higher than that of A. grahami in the respect of saprolegniasis resistance. 3. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gradually decreased with the increase of water trophic status for H. leucisculus and A. grahami. The percentages decrease over control in the activities of hepatic ALT,AST and LDH for H. leucisculus reared in high-trophic-status water were all higher than those for A. grahami reared in the same type of water. Those results indicate the normal hepatic functions of H. leucisculus and A. grahami are damaged by eutrophication to some extent, and that the capability of H. leucisculus in the adaptation to eutrophication is lower than that of A. grahami in respect of hepatic function. 4. Growth rate of C. carpio was higher than that of C. pellegrini. The ratio of nitrogen retention to nitrogen intake, apparent biological value of protein, the ratio of energy retention to energy intake and energy growth efficiency of C. carpio were all higher than those of C. pellegrini; Difference in nitrogen and energy budgets between them shows that C. carpio is better than C. pellegrini in protein and energy utilization. 5. Differences in growth and food utilization between C. carpio and C. pellegrini were affected by water temperature, and were higher under lower water temperature. This indicates that the low water temperature has more negative effects on growth and food utilization of C. pellegrini, and that C. carpio is more adaptive to low water temperature than C. pellegrini.
Pages142
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/11934
Collection学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贾艳菊. 云南高原湖泊外来鱼类和土著鱼类生理生态学的比较研究[D]. 水生生物研究所. 中国科学院水生生物研究所,2005.
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