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题名: 人工试验湖泊中转GH基因鲤鱼生物学特性的初步研究
作者: 舒少武
答辩日期: 2008-12-23
导师: 朱作言
授予单位: 中国科学院水生生物研究所
授予地点: 水生生物研究所
学位: 博士
关键词: 转GH基因鲤 ; 生态风险 ; 存活与生长特性 ; 摄食生态 ; 群落结构 ; 生物多样性 ; 人工湖泊生态系统
其他题名: Primary studies on the biological characteristic of GH-transfenic common carp in artificial lake
摘要: 世界上第一批转基因鱼问世以来,以提供优质食品蛋白来源为目的,迄今已成功研制了30多种转基因鱼,这些转基因鱼包含了世界水产养殖的许多重要品种,如鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)、斑点鮰(Ictalurus punctatus))、大西洋鲑(Salmo salar)、虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)等。经遗传改良后的转基因鱼具有生长速度快,饵料转化效率高,抗冻耐寒,抗疾病能力强等优良性状。但是,在世界范围内,尚无一例转基因鱼产业化,其原因之一在于对转基因鱼释放后潜在生态风险的担忧。如何客观全面地评价转基因鱼潜在的生态风险?已成为转基因鱼产业化必须突破的瓶颈,不仅是目前转基因鱼研究领域一个亟待解决而又极富挑战性的问题,而且也成为今后转基因鱼育种研究能否深入持续进行的关键。但迄今并无完善的理论和成熟的方法来评价转基因鱼对生态环境和生物多样性的可能影响和潜在威胁。 本论文围绕转基因鱼的生态风险评价这一重要科学问题展开研究,构建了目前世界上规模最大的、也是目前唯一一个转基因鱼生态安全研究人工湖泊生态系统(简称试验湖泊),随后将具有快速生长效应的转“全鱼”GH基因鲤及其对照鲤释放到试验湖泊,研究了转基因鱼在试验湖泊中的存活和生长特性、转基因鱼的食性及转基因鱼释放后对其主要饵料生物――大型底栖动物群落结构、功能及生物多样性的变化的影响。取得的主要研究结果如下: 1,构建了一个用于试验研究的人工湖泊生态系统(简称试验湖泊)。设计并建造了具有防洪、放逃、防盗等安全设施齐备的试验湖泊,主要目标是在接近自然水体的条件下比较研究转基因鲤与对照鲤的存活、生长、摄食和繁殖等生物学和生态学特性,评价转基因鲤建群能力及对其它生物类群可能产生的影响,为全面客观地评价转基因鱼的生态风险提供了一个全新的试验平台。 2, 进行了试验湖泊理化环境与重要生物类群的监测。研究发现,经过三年的过渡适应后,人工移植的沉水植物生长良好,软体动物、虾类和鱼类不仅成活,而且已经繁殖后代形成了种群,表明这些人工放流的生物在试验湖泊中已经趋于稳定。其中尤为重要的是,试验湖泊中鱼类区系由10科23属组成,其最大特点是以鲤科鱼类为主,约占总种数的65.2%,其中鲫、红鳍原鲌、 是试验湖泊中生物量较大的三个优势种群。试验湖泊与中国长江中下游湖泊鱼类区系组成相似,具有中国长江中下游湖泊鱼类群落的代表性。 3, 对转基因鲤释放后的水体理化环境状况空间分布格局、浮游生物组成、密度、叶绿素含量等的变化规律进行了跟踪分析。发现试验湖泊作为一个相对封闭的环境,各采样周期水体理化指标及各样点间浮游植物间数据差异较小,试验湖泊水体营养状况属于中营养化水平。同时,建立了浮游生物群落DNA指纹分析技术,为从分子水平研究转基因鱼释放对浮游生物群落结构和功能的影响奠定了基础。 4,研究了转基因鲤释放后在试验湖泊中存活和生长特性。转基因鲤在2006年和2008年回捕的鲤鱼中分别占18.5%(n=108)、20%(n=60),与放流时相比,回捕的转基因鲤所占的比例显著下降(X2检验,p = 0.0000),而且转基因鲤回捕率显著低于对照鲤,这表明转基因鲤的死亡率显著高于对照鲤。但在存活的鲤鱼群体中,转基因鲤体长特定生长率比对照鲤高9.8%,其体重特定生长率比对照鲤高11.3%,快速生长发生在第一年(高23%),在后两年没有表现出来(不足1%)。 5, 研究了转基因鲤在试验湖泊中的摄食生态。无论是1龄鱼还是3龄鱼,转基因鲤与对照鲤的食谱基本相同,但食物组成存在一定的差异,这种差异随着个体发育而逐渐减少;转基因鲤与对照鲤一样具有以动物性食料为主的杂食性特征。对于1龄鱼而言,转基因鲤食物组成的多样性低于对照鲤,两者生态重叠指数(0.332)较低,出现了某种程度的生态位分化。对于3龄鱼而言,转基因鲤与对照鲤的食物组成比较相似,两者生态重叠指数(0.942)高,营养竞争激烈。 6,研究了转基因鲤释放前后对试验湖泊中大型底栖动物群落结构、功能及生物多样性的变化。结果表明:投放转基因鲤后2年,底栖动物物种组成、密度、生物量和多样性指数均不同程度下降,投放后第3年开始出现回升。多样性指数平均减少19-44%。均匀度则差别不大。物种丰富度则减少了38%。这些数据表明在现有研究阶段,转基因鲤的放流对底栖动物群落结构及生物多样性产生一定的影响,但对水生生物群落的影响程度及水生生态环境恢复速度和健康状况有待长期的研究来确证。 关键词:转GH基因鲤、生态风险、存活与生长特性、摄食生态、群落结构,生物多样性,人工湖泊生态系统
英文摘要: Since the production of the first batch of transgenic fish, more than 30 varieties of transgenic fish have been successfully generated all over the world. The host fish include many of the major world aquaculture specie, e.g., common carp (Cyprinus carpio), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) etc. These transgenic fish have shown different aquaculture-related performance, including accelarated growth performance, increased food conversion efficiency, cold resistance, disease resistance and so on. However, there is no one case of transgenic fish in commercializaiton. One of the major concerns is the ecological safety issue after the environmental release of transgenic fish. It has been an indispensable step for us to evaluate the potential ecological risk thoroughly and substantially, before the marketing of transgenic fish. This is not only a necessary and challenging issue in the field of transgenic fish, but also critical for the breeding purpose of transgenic fish. Nevertheless, there is no widely accepted theory and/or well-developed approach for us to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic fish to the environment. 1. Focusing on the evaluation of ecological risk of transgenic fish, in this study we constructed the largest and even the only artificial lake eco-system for ecological study of transgenic fish. Subsequently, all-fish growth hormone (GH) transgenic common carp and their non-transgenic controls were released to this lake for a long time observation. First, the viability, growth performance and feeding habitats of transgenic fish were studied. Second, the impact on its major food species, i.e., big benthic animals, was studied in the following aspects, community organization and function, and bio-diversity dynamics. The main results were listed as follows. 2. An artificial lake eco-system for the study of transgenic fish was constructed successfully. We designed and built a experimental lake with flood control, escape prevention, and guard against thief. The main objectives are to conduct a comparative study between the transgenic carp and the control carp on several aspects of biological characters, such as viability, growth performance, feeding ecology and reproduction pattern, to evaluate the community ability of transgenic carp and their potential impacts on other species in the same water body. This has provided a novel platform for the evaluation of the ecological risk of transgenic fish. 3. The physicochemical factors of the water body and many biologically important taxa in the lake were examined. Three years after the construction of the lake, the transplanted aquatic plants showed a good growth performance, the released molluscs, shrimps and fishes not only survived, but also normally reproduced to establish population, suggesting that the transplanted organism have been a good acclimatization to the lake. Importanly, there are 26 species of fishes belonging to 12 families and 23 genera in the experimental lake, in which the cyprinid fish are dominant, contributing 65.2% to the total. In the fish community of the lake, crucian 3 dominant species. The ichthyologic fauna of the lake is similar to that of the lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and thus the experimental lake should be representive of the lakes. 4. After the release of transgenic fish, the spatial distribution of different water circumstances, the coposition and density of planktons, and the chlorophyl content were tracked and analyzed. As a relative unopened circumstance, the experimental lake is under the status of mid-nutritional, and it shows no significant variety in the physical and chemical factors of the water in different sampling time points, and little difference in the planktons from different sampling positions. By this, we set up a DNA topology technology of planktons, providing a good foundation for further study on the impact of transgenic fish on planktons. 5. The surviaval and growth performance of transgenic carp were studied in the experimental lake. In 2006 and 2008, transgenic carp took 18.5% (n=108) and 20% (n=60), respectively, among the random captured carps. Compared with the release time of transgenic fish, this percentage decreased quite a lot (X2 test, p = 0.0000), suggesting that transgenic carp have lower viability than the control carp. Among the survived common carp, transgenic common carp showed 9.8% higher specific growth rate (SGR) in body length than the control, 11.3% higher SGR in body weight than the controls. Fast-growth performance of transgenic carp relative to the control was measured in the first year, which was not found in the next two years of the experimental period. 6. The feeding ecology of transgenic carp was studied in the experimental lake. Either 1-year old or 3-year old, the consumed taxa or diet groups were similar between the transgenic carp and the control . The difference between them in the food composition was found, but this difference tended to reduce with the increase of fish age. The transgenic fish is omnivorous with a preference of animal foods, and its feeding habits is similar to the control carp. At 1-year old, transgenic carp showed a lower diversity of food organisms than the control carp, and their ecological overlap index (EOI) was quite low (0.332), indicating their differentiation of ecological niche. At 3-year old, they showed a similar food composition, and consequently the EOI is fairly high (0.942) which suggests that the trophic relation between them is very intense. 7. The change of community organization and function, and biological diversity of big benthic animals was studied after the release of transgenic carp. 2 years after the release of transgenic carp, the composition, density, biological quantity, and diversity index of benthic animals somehow showed decreases; while 3 years after the release of transgenic carp, all these parameters began to get recovered. Overall, the diversity index decreased 19-44% on average, uniformity did not show any difference, species richness was reduced about 38%. All these indicate that the release of transgenic carp has a negative impact on the community organization and bio-diversity of benthic animals at this moment, while the substantial influence onthe organism community, and the recovery and healthy condition of aquatic eco-system need to be examined and studied in a long time. Keywords: GH-transgenic common carp(Cyprinus carpio), ecological risk, survival and growth performance, feeding ecology, community structure, bio-diversity, artificial lake eco-system
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/342005/11918
Appears in Collections:中科院水生所知识产出(2009年前)_学位论文

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人工试验湖泊中转GH基因鲤鱼生物学特性的初步研究.舒少武[d].中国科学院水生生物研究所,2008.20-25
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