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How polluted is the Yangtze River? Water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam
Mueller, Beat; Berg, Michael; Yao, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Xian Feng; Wang, Ding; Pfluger, August; Muller, B, Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland
2008
Source PublicationSCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT
Volume402Issue:2-3Pages:232-247
AbstractThe concentrations of major anions and cations, nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved and particulate trace elements, and organic pollutants were determined for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Changjiang) from below the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the mouth at Shanghai in November 2006. The concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) was constant at a low level of 6-8 mu gP/L, but the concentration of nitrate (NO3-) approximately doubled downstream and was closely correlated with K+. This translated to a daily load of well over 1000 It of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) at Datong. The average concentrations of dissolved Pb (0.078 +/- 0.023 mu g/L), Cd (0.024 +/- 0.009 mu g/L), Cr(0.57 +/- 0.09 mu g/L), Cu (1.9 +/- 0.7 mu g/L), and Ni (0.50 +/- 0.49 mu g/L) were comparable with those in other major world rivers, while As (3.3 +/- 1.3 mu g/L) and Zn (1.5 +/- 0.6 mu g/L) were higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5, respectively. The trace element contents of suspended particles of As (31 +/- 28 mu g/g), Pb (83 +/- 34 mu g/g), and Ni (52 +/- 16 mu g/g) were close to maximum concentrations recommended for rivers by the European Community (EC). The average concentrations of Cd (2.6 +/- 1.6 mu g/g), Cr (185 +/- 102 mu g/g), Cu (115 +/- 106 mu g/g), and Zn (500 +/- 300 mu g/g) exceeded the EC standards by a factor of two, and Hg (4.4 +/- 4.7 mu g/g) by a factor of 4 to 5. Locally occurring peak concentrations exceed these values up to fourfold, among them the notorious elements As, Hg, and Tl. All dissolved and particulate trace element concentrations were higher than estimates made twenty years ago [Zhang, J., Geochemistry of trace metals from Chinese river/estuary systems: an overview. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 1995; 41: 631-658.]. The enormous loads of anthropogenic pollutants disposed to the river were diluted by the large water discharge of the Yangtze even during the lowest flow resulting in the relatively low concentration levels of trace elements and organic pollutants observed. We estimated loads of e.g. As, Pb and Ni to the East China Sea to be about 4600 kg As d(-1), 3000 kg Pb d(-1), and 2000 kg Ni d(-1). About 6000 t d(-1) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was delivered into the sea at the time of our cruise. We tested for 236 organic pollutants, and only the most infamous were found to be barely above detection limits. We estimated that the load of chlorinated compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and PAHs were between 500 and 3500 kg d(-1). We also detected eight herbicides entering the estuary with loads of 5-350 kg d(-1). The pollutant load, even when at low concentrations, are considerable and pose an increasing threat to the health of the East China Sea ecosystem. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KeywordYangtze East China Sea Pollution Trace Elements Metals Nutrients Persistent Organic Pollutants
Department[Mueller, Beat] Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; [Berg, Michael] Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-8600 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; [Yao, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Xian Feng; Wang, Ding] Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Hydrobiol IHB, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, Peoples R China; [Pfluger, August] Baiji Org Fdn, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland
Subject AreaEnvironmental Sciences
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihb.ac.cn/handle/152342/8010
Collection期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorMuller, B, Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Mueller, Beat,Berg, Michael,Yao, Zhi Ping,et al. How polluted is the Yangtze River? Water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam[J]. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT,2008,402(2-3):232-247.
APA Mueller, Beat.,Berg, Michael.,Yao, Zhi Ping.,Zhang, Xian Feng.,Wang, Ding.,...&Muller, B, Eawag, Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, CH-6047 Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.(2008).How polluted is the Yangtze River? Water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam.SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT,402(2-3),232-247.
MLA Mueller, Beat,et al."How polluted is the Yangtze River? Water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam".SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT 402.2-3(2008):232-247.
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